Ehető rovarok élelmiszeripari és takarmányozási célú felhasználásának lehetőségei

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Koppányné Szabó Erika
Jánosi Anna

Absztrakt

Becslések szerint a világ népessége 2050-re meghaladja a 9 milliárdot [1]. Ez a hatalmas mértékű népességnövekedés megköveteli tőlünk, hogy a jelenlegi élelmiszertermelésünket legalább kétszeresére növeljük [2]. Emellett azonban az tapasztalható, hogy a globális felmelegedés hatására világszerte fokozatosan csökkennek az élelmiszertermelésre használt mezőgazdasági területek [3]. Az egyre súlyosabb mértékű nyersanyaghiány miatt jelentős kutatások folynak, az alternatív fehérjeforrásként a takarmányozásban, valamint az élelmiszeriparban felhasználható növények, állatok, feltérképezése céljából. A számos lehetőség közül a rovarok alkalmazása jelentős figyelmet kap [4].
Az ehető rovarokat a világ számos részén fogyasztják hagyományosan, amely potenciálisan hozzájárulhat a világ élelmezésbiztonságához. Becslések szerint legalább 2 milliárd ember fogyaszt rendszeresen rovarokat [5], nemcsak tápértékük, hanem az ízük miatt is. Különösen a fejlett országokban, elsősorban a nyugati társadalmakban azonban a rovarokat ritkán fogyasztják, hiszen ezt kulturálisan nem tartják megfelelőnek [6]. A fogyasztói megítélés azonban megváltoztatható.
A rovarok megfelelő energia- és fehérjetartalmú, jó aminosav- és zsírsavprofilú, valamint számos mikrotápanyagot, például rezet tartalmazó élelmiszernek számítanak. Egyesek kiemelkedő vas-, magnézium-, mangán-, foszfor-, szelén- és cink-, valamint riboflavin, pantoténsav, biotin, tartalommal rendelkeznek [7]. A táplálkozási állapotot közvetlenül javító tulajdonságok mellett a rovarok a környezetre is pozitív hatással vannak. Fontos szerepet játszanak a hulladékok biológiai lebontásában és beporzóként a növények szaporodásában. Ezen túlmenően magas a takarmány átalakítási hatásfokuk és tenyésztésük kevésbé függ a termőföldtől, mint a hagyományos állattartás esetében, amely erőforrás-takarékos élelmiszer és takarmány előállítását teszi lehetővé. Emellett ki kell emelni, hogy kevesebb üvegházhatású gázt termelnek és lényegesen kevesebb vizet használnak, mint a hagyományos állattartás. Az ehető rovarok tenyésztésének és fogyasztásának növelése hatással van a gazdasági és társadalmi viszonyokra. A rovarok gyűjtése és termesztése minimális technikai vagy tőke-ráfordítással végezhető, így a társadalom legszegényebb tagjainak is lehetőséget ad a jövedelemszerzésre [8].

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Hogyan kell idézni
Koppányné Szabó, E., & Jánosi, A. (2023). Ehető rovarok élelmiszeripari és takarmányozási célú felhasználásának lehetőségei. Élelmiszervizsgálati Közlemények, 69(2), 4410–4424. https://doi.org/10.52091/EVIK-2023/2-2-HUN
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