Use of alternative protein sources in the bakery industry
Ivett Jakab, Katalin Kóczán–Manninger, Anikó Kovács, Zsuzsanna Mednyánszky
Through the production of gluten free products, stakeholders of the food industry are striving to serve the needs of celiac patients as widely as possible with a continuously increasing product range, and to ensure the right nutrient intake. Our working group would like to contribute to this goal by developing bakery products that provide the body with a valuable source of protein and essential amino acids in addition to the required amount of carbohydrates. Our goal was to create a flour mixture that is gluten free, has a higher protein content than bread cereals, and is also suitable for use in the bakery industry, primarily for making wafers. Millet flour was chosen as the basis of the flour mixture, to which hemp, alfalfa and lupine flour were mixed as additional sources of protein. After performing analytical studies regarding the amino acid composition, protein qualification values (Amino Acid Score – AAS, Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score – PDCAAS) were determined, and these were used to optimize the flour mixtures. Rheological measurements were carried out to examine the crunchiness of the wafers. Compared to the control samples, hardness data were not significantly altered by the addition of lupine or hemp flour, however, the addition of alfalfa softened the dough. In addition to achieving a more favorable protein content, naturally, it was also our goal to manufacture a product with the right organoleptic properties for consumers. Compared to the control sample, the bitter taste of millet-based doughs was reduced and the hardness of the wafers improved by the addition of lupine. Mixing 35% of hemp seed flour with the millet flour also resulted in a bakery product with the right texture and and taste. Despite its good amino acid profile, the addition of alfalfa resulted in the deterioration of the rheological and organoleptic properties of the wafers.
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