Comparative analysis of Hungarian commercial apple juices

Friday, June 28, 2019

Authors: Barbara Biró, Csilla Benedek, Attila Gere

 

SUMMARY

In recent years, 100% fruit juices have become increasingly popular among consumers. Beverages made from apples include a wide range of products, interest being particularly grate in direct press juices and products of organic farming that are produced “chemical-free”. Our objective is to compare 100% apple juices produced using different technologies, which are commercially available in Hungary, by the complex analysis of some of their quality parameters.

For the tests, 12 varieties of 100% apple juices were used. The patulin contamination of the products was checked with the help of the Food and Feed Safety Directorate of the National Food Chain Safety Office by means of an HPLC-UV measurement following a special clean-up. The hydroxymethylfurfural content of the products were determined by spectrophotometry, antioxidant capacity by FRAP (Ferric Reduction Antioxidant Power), CUPRAC (Cupric Ion Reducing Antioxidant Capacity), DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) methods based on radical neutralization, and the total polyphenol content by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total dry matter content and ash content were determined by gravimetry, while the total soluble dry matter content was determined by refractometry. For the evaluation of the results, descriptive statistical analyses, variance analysis, non-parametric statistical tests, Spearman rank correlation and a statistical method based on sum of rank differences (SRD) multicriteria comparison were used.
The patulin contamination did not reach the maximum legal limit value for any of the products. Significant differences were found between the total and soluble dry matter contents of the various product groups. The ash content varies, but there is no significant difference between the two product categories. In general, the hydroxymethylfurfural content is higher in the case of products manufactured from concentrate, however, it was a press juice that contained extreme amounts of this compound. In the case of press juices, higher antioxidant activities and polyphenolic compound contents were found by all method. There are significant differences between the individual products in terms of the latter parameters (p<0.05). Using the SRD method, it was determined which of the products tested possessed the most optimal characteristics from a nutrition science point of view.
The product groups tested differ significantly from each other in terms of almost all of the parameters measured. In general, the dry matter content of the press juices is higher, as a result of the fiber content. These products have higher antioxidant capacity values and polyphenolic compound contents, so they are nutritionally more beneficial. The latter parameters correlate well with each other, indicating the dominance of polyphenols in the development of antioxidant properties.

 

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