Food safety and energetics analysis of the heat treatment of milk

Thursday, June 15, 2017

Authors: Péter Korzenszky, Ágnes Kovács, Richárd Meixner, Csaba Pettkó

Keywords: properties of cow’s milk, heat treatment, pasteurization, peroxidase enzyme inactivity, food safety, plate pasteurizer, heat output, COP, energetics

1. Summary 
The food safety and energy efficiency of the heat treatment of cow’s milk was investigated by our research group. Of the known heat treatment processes, the results of our investigation are presented in the case of a cow’s milk treated at 75 °C and held for 5 minutes. Proper treatment of cow’s milk is probably the most pivotal issue in food production, but from the point of view of the manufacturing plant, food safety and the amount of energy used for the production are important as well. Our measurements were carried out using the PG 015 pasteurizer of the Department of Food Hygiene of the University of Veterinary Medicine. The electricity input and the amount of heat used during the technology were measured. The efficiency of food production was defined as the ratio of the utilized energy to the energy invested. To verify the adequacy of the heat treatment, peroxidase enzyme inactivity tests were performed untreated milk, and for treated milk, without and with holding it at the given temperature for the proper length of time. Based on our measurement results it can be stated that a heat recovery zone built into the technology keeps the COP value above one. By optimizing the length of the heating and the heat treatment, by adjusting the desired technological temperature precisely, and by the application of food safety limit values and analyses, the efficiency of a larger system can be improved significantly as well.

2. Quality and food safety characteristics of milk 
Milk production is an important quantitative and qualitative factor in human nutrition; milk production is responsible approximately 25% of food production. The term milk usually refers to cow’s milk. Milks of other mammals are usually designated by word combinations that indicate their origins (e.g., buffalo milk, goat’s milk). By drinking one cup of milk a day, we can contribute significantly to the recommended daily intake of nutrients. Regular consumption of milk and dairy products is recommended for a healthy and balanced diet.


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