Phosphates in our foods: benefits and risks

Wednesday, December 5, 2018

Author: Mária Szeitzné Szabó


1. Summary

Phosphorus-containing food additives are authorized substances widely used in the food industry, the use of which has many technological advantages. For a long time, these compounds had been regarded as practically harmless, however, recently more and more research results warn us that their extensive use and increasing consumption increases the risk of certain civilization hazards, such as cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis at the population level. This publication clarifies the authorization process of these additives and the role of phosphates, presents some results of related research and formulates recommendations to prevent potential risks.

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Food safety knowledge and awareness of primary school children

Wednesday, December 5, 2018

Authors: Annamária Dorkó, Ágnes Balogh-Berecz, Barbara Szabó-Bódi, Gyula Kasza

 

1.     Summary

The National Food Chain Safety Office (NÉBIH) is working to ensure the highest possible level of food safety from farm to table. As an integral part of this, particular attention is paid to minimizing risks that result from the potential lack of knowledge or from the misconceptions of consumers by its awareness-raising programs, and emphasis is put on this even in the case of young children who are most receptive to these ideas. In our paper, the results of the survey intended to form the basis of this activity and investigating the knowledge level and awareness of the children are presented. Our research experience indicates that the sometimes incomplete food safety knowledge of children and, in addition, the fact that risks are perceived to be less than actual levels in certain cases justify the coordinated work of teachers and authority experts to instill the necessary knowledge in children already in primary schools.

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Effect of fertilization on the fat content and fatty acid profile of sorghum flour samples

Wednesday, December 5, 2018

Authors: Szintia Jevcsák, Attila Bíró, Judit Remenyik, Gábor Lehocki,  Eszter Murányi, János Jóvér, Gerda Diósi, Péter Sipos

 

1. Summary

In our experiments, changes in the fat content and fatty acid composition in the flour of sorghum cultivated in growing areas treated with different nitrogen fertilizer doses were studied by the gas chromatographic analysis of the fatty acid methyl esters. The fat content exhibited a slight increase as a result of increasing fertilizer treatment, there were significant differences between the individual treatments. The fatty acid composition showed different results, depending on the treatments. We found that treatments had a positive effect on the fat content of the samples, however, increasing nitrogen dosages did not result in an outstanding increase in the case of any of the fatty acids. The ratio of fatty acids to each other did not change significantly as a function of the nitrogen dose. The average amount of unsaturated fatty acids was 83%, and the amount of saturated fatty acids was 17%.  read more ...

Incorporating single cell proteins in the diet of IBD patients

Wednesday, December 5, 2018

Authors: Judit Molnár, Dávid Vasas, Balázs Ásványi


1. Summary

Worldwide, and also in Hungary, more and more patients are diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) each year. In the case of IBD patients, to supplement a normal diet, alternative solutions, such as, for example, the dietary use of single cell proteins intended to be examined by us are required. Ensuring the proper nutrition and liquid supply of the human body is one of the major tasks of modern food science. By using state-of-the-art scientific knowledge and diagnostic methods, the energy requirement of people with increased energy and protein needs can be determined as a function of their body weight, and the production processes of foods should be realized with this information in mind.

In our research, single cell proteins (SCP) have been produced in a yeast culture grown on high sugar content culture media, including their nutritional evaluation. Possibilities for incorporating SCP in the diet of IBD patients have also been investigated. With our research results, we would like to provide assistance to specialists in food science and those in nutrition science contributing to food production.

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Consumer perception of product recall in the food sector

Tuesday, September 25, 2018

Authors: Sarolta Barna, Lajos Bognár, Annamária Dorkó, Gyula Kasza

 

1. Summary

The task of risk analysis is to estimate the risks associated with the hazards present in the food chain and to prevent or reduce potential harm with risk management and risk communication. Measures related to the restriction of the marketing of certain products are connected to the latter. In our article, related concepts are reviewed and the most important results of the representative consumer survey of the National Food Chain Safety Office (henceforward: NFCSO) on product recall are presented.

 

2. Introduction

2.1. Legal background

In the European Union, concepts and obligations related to product recall are defined and regulated by Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety. read more ...

Food science applications and international trends of artificial neural networks

Tuesday, September 25, 2018

Authors: Ákos Nyitrai, Attila Gere, László Sipos

 

1. Summary

Recently, research has been focusing increasingly on the system of artificial neural networks, and its results are used in many places by industrial practices. The success of these networks lies in their ability to recognize the complex relationships and patterns in data, as well as to predict unknown samples, thus enabling value and category predictions with high certainty. Artificial neural networks are very efficient tools for modeling non-linear trends within data. In many cases, they perform well where traditional statistical tools provide unsatisfactory results or unable to solve a given research problem. In our work, the operation principle and structure (topology) of artificial neural networks are summarized, as well as the classification and application possibilities of the networks. The latest food science applications are presented separately, based on the usage type (prediction, classification, optimization).

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Nutritional analysis of coffee dregs for utilization purposes using classical, ICP-OES and FT-NIR techniques

Tuesday, September 25, 2018

Authors: Zsóka Kárpáti, Eszter Luca Benes, Marietta Fodor

 

1. Summary

Coffee dregs are a byproduct left behind in significant amounts after brewing coffee. Several researches have dealt with its utilization possibilities and have proven, in certain cases, its positive effect. In our study, the applicability of coffee dregs as a soil improver was investigated. The pH, dry matter and water-soluble total salt content of coffee dregs, produced as the byproduct of coffee beverages prepared by the espresso  ethod were determined. The mineral content of the samples was measured using the ICP-OES technique. The FT-NIR spectra of the samples were recorded and pattern recognition was carried out according to growing site and preparation method (French Press and Espresso) by the chemometric evaluation of the spectral data.

 

2. Literature overview

Coffee has become an increasingly popular luxury good: according to the annual statistics of the International Coffee Organization, on average, around 9,000 tons of green coffee per has been grown annually in recent years worldwide. Due to the continuous increase in the amount of coffee consumed, increasing amounts of the byproduct of brewing coffee, of coffee dregs are produced. read more ...

Determination of the sensory development directions of beers using the method of penalty analysis

Wednesday, June 20, 2018

Author: Barbara Tompos

 

1.     Summary


In my research, one of the methods of the determination of sensory product development directions is presented, based on the preference for different beers and the sensory characteristics influencing it. Six different beers were tested, four of which are commercially available (Löwenbrau, Staropramen, cold hop Dreher, Soproni), and two of them are made in breweries (lager, cold hop lager). Beers were rated by 63 college students. 37 of them were women, 26 were men, their age being in the range of 18 to 27 years.

Sensory preference was evaluated by the consumers (lay judges) on two different scales. First, the evaluation was carried out by characteristics – color, general odor intensity, citrus scent, fruity scent, bitter scent, malt scent, yeast scent, general flavor intensity, citrus flavor, fruity flavor, bitter flavor, malt flavor, yeast flavor, sweet flavor, sour flavor – on a structured optimum scale (just about right, JAR) of 1 to 9 (1=too weak, 5=exactly right, 9=too strong). An important feature of JAR data is that they are bidirectional, since not only the deviation from the optimum point, but also the direction of the deviation is important during data processing.


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Study of basic taste recognition among the tourism and catering management students of the Budapest Business School

Wednesday, June 20, 2018

Authors: Zsófia Fekete-Frojimovics, Beatrix Lenkovics, Kinga Magyarné Horváth, Tímea Jakuschné Kocsis, Andrea Lugasi

 

1.     Summary

 

The role of sensory analyses in the food industry and in gastronomy has increased significantly in the last decade. The regulation of both quality and certification is of paramount importance in this area as well.

In this paper presenting our series of analyses, we endeavored to find out to what extent tourism and catering management students are able to recognize the four basic tastes (sweet, salty, sour, bitter) when using all of their senses, and whether their abilities are affected by the exclusion of sight and smell.

In the first part of the study, tasters could use all their sense organs. In this case, sweet and salty tastes were properly recognized by more than 75% of the students. However, sour and bitter tastes were correctly identified by only 30% of the students, many mixed them up, and a quarter of the students did not even attempt to identify the taste. In terms of sensing sweet, salty and sour tastes, there was no difference between men and women, but the bitter taste was properly identified by more than 40% of men, and only 30% of women.

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Measures for the protection of honey bees and other pollinating species in plant protection

Wednesday, June 20, 2018

Authors: Géza Ripka, Anna Rónai

 

1. Summary


The Hungarian pesticide authorization authority, the Directorate of Plant Protection, Soil Conservation and Agri-environment of the National Food Chain Safety Office (NÉBIH NTAI) strives to ensure with new measures that the risk to bees and other pollinating organisms is minimized during the proper use of pesticides. This article provides an overview of the causes of recent bee deaths and of the authorization changes intended for the protection of pollinators. Bee protection measures serve not only the economic interests of beekeepers, but they also deal with food chain safety issues due to the appearance of pesticide residues in honey. For example, limiting the use of dimethoate has considerably reduced the dimethoate residue contamination of honey.

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The effect of ground poppy seeds with different properties on the rheological properties of white chocolate

Wednesday, June 20, 2018

Authors: Katalin Zay, László Somogyi, Anita Soós

 

1. Summary


In the coarse of our research, white chocolate samples prepared using poppy seeds and poppy seed flour of different grain size and in different amounts were compared in order to be able to determine what kind of effect they had on the rheological properties of the finished products, i.e., how the penetration and rotational viscosity properties of the finished products were influenced. Based on the results of rotational viscometry, there was a significant difference between the samples that contained poppy seeds, depending on the poppy seed grain size. However, on the basis of the penetration measurement results, there was a significant difference between the samples containing lower oil content poppy seed flour, correlating to the grain size. During grinding, two opposite effects occur: on the one hand, removal of the oil content, and on the other hand, an increase in the number of particles in a given volume unit.  read more ...

Assessing the impact of the fipronil egg scandal on consumer behavior in Hungary

Tuesday, March 13, 2018

Authors: Sarolta Barna, Petra Mikulka, Zsuzsanna Frum, Dávid Szakos, Lajos Bognár, Gyula Kasza

 

1.       Summary

In addition to high pathogenicity avian influenza outbreak that started in the fall of 2016, the European poultry sector was also affected by the fipronil egg scandal that escalated quickly in August 2017. The above-mentioned incidents demanded rapid, decisive and coordinated action on the part of food chain safety authorities across Europe. Fast and continuous flow of credible information has been made possible by the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) of the European Union.

However, adequate authority measures alone do not guarantee the minimization of the economic damages caused by food scandals, therefore, great emphasis should be  placed on risk communication as well in similar cases.

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Application possibilities of pseudocereals in product development

Tuesday, March 13, 2018

Authors: Ildikó Szedljak, Vanda Réka Kujbus

 

1.     Summary

In our research, experiments have been conducted on bakers’ wares development. Our goal was the creation and chemical testing of a product that is rich in antioxidants and has favorable properties from a nutrition physiology point of view. In our experiments, bakers’ wares were produced using different mixing ratios of BL55 wheat flour, amaranth and buckwheat flours.

The consumption of buckwheat and amaranth have not yet gained wide acceptance among Hungarian consumers. Their taste could be strange to consumers, which can cause rejection. Therefore, we tried to make the organoleptic properties of the products more favorable to consumers by using different spices. By the addition of the spices, the antioxidant capacity of the finished products could also be increased.

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Human biological characteristics of fructose

Tuesday, March 13, 2018

Author: György Biró

 

1.       Summary

 

Fructose is a natural ingredient of human nutrition, and it comes mainly from fruits and honey, and to a certain extent, from vegetables. In these sources, it is found partially in the free form of the sugar, and partially as one of the components of the disaccharide sucrose. In recent decades, the use of corn syrup, based on decomposed corn starch and containing large amounts of free fructose, and of enzymatically treated sucrose, also known as invert sugar, for the sweetening of various foods has been spreading rapidly, leading to the excessive intake of fructose. Due to the complex nature of the diet, it is very difficult to examine its consequences on the health of the consumer, transposition of the results of animal experiments to humans requires careful consideration, and is not always feasible.

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Determination of the sensory development directions of beers using the method of penalty analysis

Tuesday, March 13, 2018

Author: Barbara Tompos


1.       Summary

 

In my research, one of the methods of the determination of sensory product development directions is presented, based on the preference for different beers and the sensory characteristics influencing it. Six different beers were tested, four of which are commercially available (Löwenbrau, Staropramen, cold hop Dreher, Soproni), and two of them are made in breweries (lager, cold hop lager). Beers were rated by 63 college students. 37 of them were women, 26 were men, their age being in the range of 18 to 27 years.

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Prediction of sensory preference by artificial neural networks, using sweet corn varieties as an example

Thursday, November 30, 2017

Authors: László Sipos, Viktor Losó, Ákos Nyitrai, Zoltán Kókai, Attila Gere

 

1. Summary

According to our knowledge, there are only a few publications in available literature sources on the sensory characteristics and consumer preferences of sweet corn varieties. In our research, practical application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) is presented. In our study, 41 frozen sweet corn varieties were evaluated by a panel of expert sensory panelists (14 persons), by the method of profile analysis (MSZ ISO 11035:2001; ISO 13299:2003), on an unstructured scale of 0 to 100, then, in large-scale tests, 6 of the 41 varieties were evaluated by consumers (167 people) according to preference, on a structured scale of 1 to 9. Artificial neural networks require large amounts of data, therefore, on the expert and consumer data for the 6 varieties, 1,000 Monte Carlo simulations were run. 80% of the resulting dataset was used to train the created neural networks, and 20% was utilized to test them.  read more ...

Assessment of orange wines in the light of new food consumption trends

Thursday, November 30, 2017

Authors: Zsuzsanna Bene, István Piskóti

 

1. Summary

Studying the world’s new gastronomic trends, the appearance of orange wines is a real rarity and a special phenomenon. In contrast with rosé wines, orange wines are made not from white grapes, but from blue grapes, by skin-contact fermentation. As a result, an orange color is obtained by the wine, and it also tastes different than usual white wines. Laypeople usually do not know how the preparation process looks like. Many people think that these wines are made from oranges via fermentation or orange peels are soaked in already finished wines. The objective of oenological and wine marketing research of orange wines, on the one hand, is to be able to make “product and process innovation” recommendations – in the absence of winemaking regulations – regarding the winemaking technology in question by collecting their characteristics and, on the other hand, to outline their wine gastronomy market possibilities, based on the assessment and evaluation of their current professional status and recognition, and to formulate the necessary directions for marketing support.

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Investigation of the strontium content of foods and the biological role of strontium

Thursday, November 30, 2017

Author: András S. Szabó

 

1. Summary

From a physiological point of view, strontium is a microelement, having a common transport system with calcium. In plants and soils, there is usually a difference of two orders of magnitude between the concentrations of calcium and strontium. However, in the case of humans and animals, the difference can be as high as three orders of magnitude. The reason for this is the strong ability to discriminate, as a result of which strontium is absorbed from the alimentary canal of warm-blooded creatures in significantly lower amounts. Thus, the Sr:Ca ratio in the human body, as well as its radiostrontium contamination (90Sr/Ca) is significantly lower than the values that can be measured in the foods consumed. It is well known that calcium can be partially replaced by strontium, but large amounts of strontium are toxic to the body. At the same time, strontium is used in medicine to treat osteoporosis.

Clarification of the plant, animal and human physiological role of strontium, and proving of its possible essential role requires further investigation. Since the concentration distribution of essential and non-essential microelements shows significant differences within a healthy organism, this knowledge will be of great help in the determinationof the biological role of the given microelement by examining the concentration distributions in healthy body tissues, because essential elements are present in the tissues in a narrow concentration range.

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Allergenic risks of novel foods

Thursday, November 30, 2017

Author: Anita Maczó

 

One of the basic requirements of food industry innovations is to guarantee the safety of the products. Therefore, novel foods may be marketed in the European Union only after authorization based on a broad safety assessment. For the safety of consumers with  ood allergies, this assessment includes the investigation of the potential allergenic effects of new products. The currently available risk assessment strategy, which is based on the methodology used for the allergenic risk assessment of genetically modified plants, has been applied successfully in the case of novel foods where there was a risk if an allergenic effect, because of their protein content. The current strategy can be used in cases where the source of the protein is known, however, the unexpected allergenic effects of new protein sources cannot always be estimated. Recently, new directions in development have emerged, which have been used successfully in certain studies, e.g., in the investigation of the allergenic effects of insect proteins. This article summarizes the difficulties of the methodology and the efforts to overcome them, and shows examples of the allergenic risk assessment of already authorized novel foods and food ingredients.

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Investigation of the antimicrobial effect of black cumin oil using Staphylococcus aureus strains

Wednesday, October 4, 2017

Authors: Petra Mikulka, Iva Čanak, Jadranka Frece, Csilla Mohácsiné Farkas

Keywords: black cumin oil, thymoquinone, alternative preservation, multidrug resistance, Staphylococcus aureus

1. Summary 
As customer awareness grows, there is an increasing consumer demand for minimally processed food products containing reduced amounts of additives. In order to preserve the safety and stability of foodstuffs, the use of preservatives is necessary in most cases, but their amounts can be reduced or they can be replaced by using alternative preservatives. There are numerous research findings in the scientific literature that support the antimicrobial effect, oxidative stability and scavenger abilities of black cumin oil. These properties, combined with its beneficial physiological effects, make it particularly suitable for use as a natural preservative. The goal of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of black cumin oil in the case of Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogen relevant from a food safety point of view. In order to be able to map the mechanism of action more accurately, we worked with erythromycin, and to test the suitability of the oil in a combined preservation process, it was combined with organic acids.


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Experiments of food investigations in the education of high school students

Wednesday, October 4, 2017

Authors: Gergely Levente Szabo, Andras S. Szabo, Margit Izsak, Janos Bozi, Eszter Imola Tisza-Kosa

Keywords: acidity, analysis, physical properties, measurement technique, viscosity

1. Summary 
Experiments have a dominant role in the education of natural science subjects. It has been our experience that students have been very satisfied, if the materials used in the experiments were well known substances to them, in this case foodstuffs. Again, 10 simple experiments of physical, chemical and biological type are described, concerning the following topics: measurement of the temperature of black coffee and milk exposed to natural light, study of capillarity in a sugar cube dipped into coffee or red wine, measuring honey viscosity, determination of the acid content of vinegar, the change of cooking oil viscosity as a function of temperature, measurement of concentration on the basis of the law of Archimedes, acidity measurement of fruits, measurement of the alcohol content of alcoholic beverages, microscopic examination of yeast, study alcoholic fermentation produced by yeast. Foodstuffs used during the investigations and measurements: apples, black coffee, brandy, fruit juice, honey, milk, oranges, red wine, rum, sucrose, sunflower oil, vinegar, wine, yeast.


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Food and feed safety assessment of green peas grown in an arseniccontaminated area

Wednesday, October 4, 2017

Authors: Szilvia Várallyay, Andrea Balláné Kovács, Áron Soós, Béla Kovács

1. Summary 
Both natural and anthropogenic arsenic contaminations of soil and groundwater are a global problem for all parts of the world, in terms of which, in Hungary, primarily the Great Plain region is affected. Through growing plants on arsenic-contaminated soil, arsenic can enter the food chain, which can mean a serious food safety risk. In Hungary, more than 70% of the vegetable growing areas are located in the Great Plain area affected by natural arsenic contamination. Green peas, the food industrial significance of which is due to the many forms of processing, among other things, are the second most common vegetable, in terms of the growing area. Based on this, the objective of our work was to determine the changes in the arsenic contents of the different plant parts (stem, leaf, pea pod, pea seeds) of green peas grown on arsenic-treated soil. Based on the results obtained, it was investigated how big a food and feed safety risk green peas grown in such areas pose. The effect of soil arsenic contamination on the arsenic uptake of green peas was investigated using pot experiments. 

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Food safety and energetics analysis of the heat treatment of milk

Wednesday, October 4, 2017

Authors: Péter Korzenszky, Ágnes Kovács, Richárd Meixner, Csaba Pettkó

Keywords: properties of cow’s milk, heat treatment, pasteurization, peroxidase enzyme inactivity, food safety, plate pasteurizer, heat output, COP, energetics
1. Summary 
The food safety and energy efficiency of the heat treatment of cow’s milk was investigated by our research group. Of the known heat treatment processes, the results of our investigation are presented in the case of a cow’s milk treated at 75 °C and held for 5 minutes. Proper treatment of cow’s milk is probably the most pivotal issue in food production, but from the point of view of the manufacturing plant, food safety and the amount of energy used for the production are important as well. Our measurements were carried out using the PG 015 pasteurizer of the Department of Food Hygiene of the University of Veterinary Medicine. The electricity input and the amount of heat used during the technology were measured. The efficiency of food production was defined as the ratio of the utilized energy to the energy invested. To verify the adequacy of the heat treatment, peroxidase enzyme inactivity tests were performed untreated milk, and for treated milk, without and with holding it at the given temperature for the proper length of time. Based on our measurement results it can be stated that a heat recovery zone built into the technology keeps the COP value above one. By optimizing the length of the heating and the heat treatment, by adjusting the desired technological temperature precisely, and by the application of food safety limit values and analyses, the efficiency of a larger system can be improved significantly as well.

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Evaluation of the mineral content of winter wheat in light of/as a result of the new studies

Wednesday, June 21, 2017

Author: Zoltán Győri

 

Keywords: winter wheat, minerals, cultivation years, varieties, macro- and microelements

 

1. Summary

 

Today, more and more emphasis is placed by food and nutrition research and practice on the chemical composition of winter wheat, which is considered a staple food, both in terms of organic and inorganic macro- and microcomponents. This attention is the result of several factors, of which should be highlighted the expansion of the possibilities in instrumental analysis (HPLC, HPLC-MS, ICP-OES, ICP-MS), as well as the often changing factors closely related to cultivation technology (varieties, hybrid, plant protection, fertilization, frequency of weather extremes). As a result, over the past two decades, researchers have been focusing more and more on the question whether the chemical, as well as the feedstock and nutritional physiology quality of crops, including wheat, changed because of intensive agrotechnics and the genetic capabilities of the new varieties.

My intention was to provide satisfying answers, based on the analytical data of the large number of samples coming from different experiments (long-term experiments), to the questions that had been raised, one of the most important of which is the question how the mineral content of winter wheat, a staple food, had changed over the last hundred years. To this end, I used samples that had been archived at different locations of Hungary and analyzed using state-of-the-art measurement methods.

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DON, F-2 and T-2 mycotoxin assay of plant-based feedstock raw materials using the ELISA method

Wednesday, June 21, 2017

Authors: Helga Tima, Eleonóra Kecskésné Nagy, Anita Rácz, Gabriella Kiskó, Csilla Mohácsiné Farkas

 

1. Summary

In our study, plant-based raw materials, used for feeding different animal species, are investigated, using a competitive ELISA method. The raw materials most commonly used for feeding (soy and alfalfa pellets, as well as wheat, barley and maize) were used in the tests. Of Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (F-2) and T-2 toxins were measured. Measurement results were evaluated using the mathematical- statistical program RStudio. In our experiment, we found that all three mycotoxins tested could be detected in all of the samples, but the values were not quantifiable with acceptable precision in each case.

The average detected DON toxin result was an order of magnitude greater than the results of the other toxins. It has been shown in our study that the presence of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and T-2 poses a serious food and feed safety risk, since they are present in feedstock raw materials, even though only in small amounts. Today, these mycotoxins are present together in more and more cases, greatly increasing the above-mentioned risk.

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The historical role of milk and dairying in shaping European societies

Wednesday, June 21, 2017

Author: László Varga

 

1.       Summary

 

Based on results recently published in the scientific literature, the author briefly outlines in this mini-review how dairying has become, over thousands of years, a basic activity of humankind. Following the domestication of cattle, goats and sheep, which had begun approximately 10,500 to 11,000 years ago in the Middle East, milk was already in use in northwestern Anatolia by the seventh millennium BC. In lack of lactase, however, milk consumption resulted in unpleasant outcomes (e.g., flatulence, cramps, diarrhea, etc.) in the vast majority of prehistoric farmers.

The negative symptoms associated with lactose intolerance were later considerably alleviated by the introduction of simple milk processing techniques such as fermentation. Thus, for instance, Neolithic farming communities in north-central Poland started producing cheese between 6800 and 7400 years ago. Intriguingly, the ability to digest lactose in adulthood, termed lactase persistence (LP), emerged as a result of a genetic mutation at about the same time in central Europe, and the LP allele has been subject to strong positive selection afterwards. As the so-called gene–culture coevolutionary model suggests, the cultural evolution of dairy farming tightly entwined with the biological evolution of LP over millennia, and these processes are likely to have profoundly influenced the genetic composition of European populations.

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The Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the European Union

Wednesday, June 21, 2017

Authors: Enikő Dorogházi, Béla Maczák, László Mészáros

 

1. Summary

 

The Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) of the European Union has been ensuring an efficient flow of information among the authorities of the European states since 1979, in order to protect the population from risky foods and feeds. Part of the information on issues reported in the system are not only available to the authorities, but can be utilized by all interested parties in the field of food safety. Experience has shown that, in addition to authorities, the information is monitored and data are analyzed by manufacturers and distributors, laboratories, consulting firms, NGOs, universities and media professionals. In recent years, rapid, targeted information of the population has been emphasized more and more. This article provides general information about RASFF, starting with the most important events in its history from its creation to today, then the EU and domestic legal background of its operation is outlined, followed by the presentation of the institutions of its network, and the method of information flow. It also describes where and in what form can public data managed by the system can be accessed, and provides guidance for their interpretation. Finally, the development over time of the alerts managed by the system is illustrated.

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Hungalimentaria 2017 conference and exhibition

Wednesday, June 21, 2017

Authors: Gábor Szunyogh, Réka Zanathy, Nikoletta Hollinger, Tamás János Szigeti

 

Hungary’s most important food safety conference and exhibition took place with more than 300 participants, 33 exhibitors and 60 presentations. The focus of the conference titled Hungalimentaria, organized by the National Food Chain Safety Office (NÉBIH) and WESSLING Hungary Kft., an operator of independent laboratories, was on packaging materials this time but, in addition to authority considerations, laboratory analyses and legal regulation, the most important food analytical issues of our age were also covered at the conference, from microplastics, through dietary supplements and pesticides, to organic foods. Several new studies, analyses and methods were presented, and these are reported in detail by the scientific media partner of the event, the Journal of Food Investigations in the compilation below.

The biennial scientific event for food analytical and food control organizations, producers and distributors titled Hungalimentaria Conference and Exhibition was organized again in 2017 by NÉBIH and WESSLING Hungary Kft.

The motto of the event, held for the 11th time on April 26th and 27th was „Foods and their packaging materials on the table”. Packaging materials play a key role in food safety: in addition to keeping food together, they protect it from the effects of the environment (and vica versa), they make it keepable and safe, and they also carry important messages and information.

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Food testing – Conference of UN member states (CCMAS)

Wednesday, June 21, 2017

Author: Gábor Szunyogh

 

At the CCMAS conference that took place in Budapest with the participation of representatives of more than fifty UN member states and leading experts of the FM and NÉBIH, decisions were made about crucial analytical methods, regarding the world’s food trade and the laboratory testing of foods. Results of the conference were summarized to Laboratorium.hu by the chairman of the Hungarian Working Group...

At the event that took place between May 8 and 12, Hungarian policy was represented by Dr. Márton Oravecz, president of the National Food Chain Safety Office (NÉBIH), and Dr. Lajos Bognár, Hungary’s chief veterinary officer and deputy state secretary of the Ministry of Agriculture (FM) responsible for food chain supervision, who reminded participants of the Codex’s role in public health, food chain safety and fair trade, and of the importance of the independent work of the organization.

„The methods and recommendations adopted at this conference will play a decisive role in the food trade of UN member states” - said to Laboratorium.hu Dr. Tamás János Szigeti of the independent laboratory WESSLING Hungary Kft., which has been performing food analyses in Hungary for twenty-five years, chairman of the Hungarian Working Group of the CCMAS.

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Accuracy of analytical standard solutions and the uncertainty in their nominal concentrations

Monday, March 20, 2017

Authors: Árpád Ambrus, Kamirán Áron Hamow, Gabriella Kötelesné Suszter, Anikó Németh, Etelka Solymosné Majzik


 1.     Summary


In the last step of the analysis, the accuracy of analytical standard solutions has a de­cisive influence on the measurement results of pesticide residues, as well as all other chemical contaminants, and, in the case of actual concentrations differing from no­minal ones, can result in a systematic error during the determination of sample com­ponents. Therefore, most of the laboratories who feel responsible for their results pay special attention to the preparation and storage of standard solutions, and to reple­nishing solvent losses due to possible evaporation, based on the mass measurements of vessels storing standard solutions before and after use. However, in our experience, much less attention than necessary is paid in practical work to monitoring the possible decomposition of individual active ingredients, and not appropriate statistical methods are used for the evaluation of the monitoring results. In our article, we present the stan­dard preparation methods of two laboratories employing “good analytical practices”, analyze the uncertainties of the different steps, and make a recommendation for the preparation of the most accurate standard solutions.

 read more ...

Chia seeds as a novel food

Monday, March 20, 2017

Authors: Ágnes Kemenczei, Anita Maczó, Anna Kiss

 

1.     Summary


One of today’s popular products is the seed of Salvia hispanica, more commonly known as chia seeds. Its popularity stems from its high nutrient content, and also from the be­neficial health effects associated with its consumption. Salvia hispanica was one of the staple crops of the Aztec and Mayan civilizations and, in addition to being consumed as a food, it was also used in medicine because of its special nutrient content. These days chia seed consumption is experiencing a renaissance again, for example, in the USA, Canada and Australia, it has been used for more than eight years as a food ingredient, because of its potentially beneficial health effects. The protein, essential fatty acid and fiber contents of chia seed are outstanding, and it is an excellent natural source of ant­ioxidants. Chia seeds are classified as a “novel food” in the European Union, so there are strict conditions for its marketing and use for business purposes. The use of chia seeds as a food ingredient was approved by the Directorate-General For Health and Food Safety (DG SANTE) in 2009, the conditions of which were modified in 2013, 2014 and 2015. However, consumption of more than 15 grams a day can cause gastrointest­inal problems, therefore, in the European Union, consumers have to be warned about this. In addition, its potential allergizing effect also has to be taken into consideration when consuming it. Today, the positive effects of chia seed consumption have not yet been proved, and further research is needed regarding its future role played in the food industry.

 read more ...

Revision of the performance evaluation methods of sensory panelists performing descriptive analysis

Monday, March 20, 2017

Authors: László Sipos, Márta Ladányi, Zoltán Kókai, Attila Gere

 

1.     Summary


Sensory tests form the basis for sensory science. Sensory science uses human senses as measurement tools. During sensory tests, the properties of a product are evaluated by sensory panelists and by a sensory panel consisting of them. Decisions made after sensory tests are fundamentally determined by the quality of the data experienced, therefore, the quality of sensory data is determined by the trained and expert sensory sensory panel and its members. In our work, revision of the correlation and regression methods recommended by the standard titled „MSZ ISO 11132:2013 Sensory analysis. Methodology. Guidelines for monitoring the performance of a quantitative sensory pa­nel” are described, and corrections are suggested.

2. Introduction and literature review

According to Kermit és Lengard [1], a good sensory sensory panel should provide precise, discriminative and accurate results. An ideal group performance can be achieved if the products are differentiated by each member of the group (“great product variety”), and the same results are obtained several times (“small variation for the individual panelists”). However, there should be agreement with the other panel members regarding the sensory property, within a given tol­erance (small variation among panelists) [2],[3],[4]. 

 read more ...

Teaching of natural sciences in schools with the help of food investigation experiments

Monday, March 20, 2017

Authors: Eszter Imola Tisza-Kosa, Andras S. Szabo, Gergely Levente Szabo, Margit Izsak, Janos Bozi 

 

1.     Summary


Experiments are of primary importance in the teaching of scienctific knowledge. In our experience, it is a welcome sight for students if the subjects of the experiments are substances well known to them, in this case, different foodstuffs. Once again, 10 simple experiments of physical, chemical and biological character are described in the following topics: color development and pH value, masking of taste recognition, reaction of egg whites with salt and lemon juice, identification of glucose and sucro­se, preparation of effervescent powder, determination of the fat content of milk, xant­hoproteic reaction, wavelength-determination with cheese in a microwave oven, coo­king in a pressure cooker (Kukta pot), detection of carotenoids.Foodstuffs used in the measurements and experiments are: carrots, cheese, citric acid, egg whites, glucose, lemon juice, milk, powdered sugar , raspberry syrup, red beet juice, red wine, sodium bicarbonate, table salt, tartaric acid.

 read more ...

Book review

Monday, March 20, 2017

Food Safety Assessment of Pesticide Residues

Editors: Árpád Ambrus, Denis Hamilton


Pesticides are now accepted as an integral part of modern agricultural production. This book provides analysis of the steps taken by national and interna­tional bodies working towards a cohesive global strat­egy for evaluating the safety of residues in food that result from approved pesticide uses. Also described is the role of the UN Food and Agriculture Organiza­tion (FAO), World Health Organization (WHO) and Co­dex Alimentarius in developing standards that protect the health of the consumers and ensure fair practices in the food trade. It goes on to look at the promotion of good agricultural practice in the use of pesticides and the need for control in their practical use. These include sampling, testing the compliance of marketed products against legal limits and verifying the effec­tiveness of the safety-based regulatory measures.

This is a specialist book for those looking to go into the field of international food safety, for students and lecturers studying the topic, for policy makers work­ing on public health and agricultural issues, and per­sonnel responsible for taking samples and performing the analysis of pesticide formulations and residues.

Readership: Specialist book for those looking to go into the field of international food safety, students and lecturers studying the topic, policy makers working on public health and agricultural issues, and person­nel responsible for taking samples and performing the analysis of pesticide formulations and residues.

Contents of the book is available on the website www.eviko.hu „Downloads” section.



Food adulteration

Authors: János Csapó, Csilla Albert, Zsuzsanna Csapóné Kiss


This „Food adulteration” book was written for the students of the Faculty of Csíkszereda of the Sapi­entia Hungarian University of Transylvania. The au­thors hope that this book will be used also by the students of the prospective branch for foodstuff and environmental engineering, and even it may also pro­vide help for the students of the new branches during their studies. When writing this book the authors had to take into account the traditions of the faculty, so the analytical methods contained in this book are as­sociated with the materials taught in the framework of other subjects. Thus, the authors’ intention was to write such book to the students which could be uses during the practical teaching of several subjects.

This book starts with a brief qualitative chemical analysis, followed by a longer classical quantitative chemical analysis. In these chapters the students can gain knowledge on the course of the qualitative and quantitative analysis, acidi-alkalimetry, the oxidation-reduction as well as the precipitation titration meth­ods, finally on the determinations based on the for­mation of complex compounds. After these chapters the methods developed for the determination of the main foodstuff components are being dealt with. At the beginning of this part, after the determination of the moisture contents, the determination of mineral components and different spectroscopic methods are discussed. Afterwards, the determination of the nitrogen-containing substances, more closely the de­termination of the protein contents, protein fractions and amino acid composition of proteins is treated. The authors put emphasis on the most expensive foodstuff component, the proteins, and try to discuss every method that is suitable for the evaluation of protein quality. Subsequent to the determination of fat contents and fatty acid composition, examination of crude fibre and fibre fractions is treated. Among the nitrogen free extractable substances the sugars and starch are determined, and properties of various sugar-containing preparations are examined as well. A special place is devoted to the determination of provitamins and vitamins, as well as to mycotoxins. As a closing compilation, at the end of most of the chapters there are so called „Selected chapters”, in which specific foodstuff analytical methods are dis­cussed.


Contents of the book is available on the website www.eviko.hu „Downloads” section.


 read more ...

Analysis of pesticides in food products using SFE-SFC-MSMS

Monday, December 5, 2016

Author: Sigrid Baumgarten

 

 

The use of an online system combining Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and Su­percritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) with tandem Mass Spectrometry for the anal­ysis of pesticide residues in food products is introduced in this study. In addition, SFE of organochlorine pesticides was performed for subsequent analysis by GC-MS/MS. SFC was proven to be a powerful technique for the separation of a wide range of pesticides with different chemical structures, polarities and molecular weights.

100 pesticides were extracted from different food matrices and analyzed using the online SFE-SFC-MS/MS system. The entire process was characterized by good re­peatability in the concentration range 1 to 10 ng/g. LOQs ranged from 0.1 to 10 μg/L

The system was configured to enable automated switching to offline extraction to perform analysis with either SFC or GC-MS. Offline SFE and analysis by GC-MS of or­ganochlorine pesticides was accomplished with good accuracy (recoveries between 80 and 125%) for the majority of analytes.

 read more ...

Food safety importance of biophosphate applications in safe food crop productions

Monday, December 5, 2016

Author: Edward Someus, Zoltán Palotai, Zsolt Hantosi, Gábor Bordós

 

1. Summary

Disrupted nutrient recycling is a problem for Europe and all over the world. Phospho­rus and nitrogen, instead of being used for plant nutrition, are lost across environ­mental media during food production or are wasted. Regarding phosphate fertilisers, the European Union (EU) is currently highly dependent on import of phosphate rock mined outside of the EU. There is no any possibility to substitute Phosphorus in ag­ricultural food crop and animal productions. Therefore, phosphorous recovery and recycling is one of the key priorities of sustainable agricultural systems in the EU and worldwide as well.

The “3R” Recycle-Reduce-Reuse zero emission pyrolysis technology and carbon refinery is specifically designed for the high added value recycling and recovery of BIO-PHOSPHATE, BIO-NPK-C nutrients and bio-materials with different carbon structures, which refined carbon and mineral products can safely be applied in the organic/low input agriculture and adsorber industries.

 read more ...

Analysis of the botanical origins of monofloral honey types

Monday, December 5, 2016

Authors: Nikolett Czipa, Anna Novák, Béla Kovács

  

1. Summary

At the Institute of Food Science of the University of Debrecen, we have been analyz­ing honey for ten years. In our study, the proline and phenolic compound contents of 70 types of monofloral honey (acacia, linden, rape, sunflower, milkweed, chestnut and forest) were examined. During the study, the answer was sought to the question whether it was possible, based on these two parameters, to differentiate monofloral honey types from each other or, in other words, was there an effect of the botanical origin on the amounts of these two compounds.

With the help of linear discriminant analysis, it was determined that groups of mono­floral honey could be clearly differentiated from each other. Differentiation of the two groups was not unambiguous in the case of forest and chestnut honey, so the analy­sis of a third characteristic could be necessary in the case of these two monofloral honeys.

 read more ...

Monitoring the agreement of sensory panelists

Monday, December 5, 2016

Authors: László Sipos, Márta Ladányi, Viktor Losó, Zoltán Kókai, Attila Gere


 

 1.    Summary

It is an important theoretical question of sensometrics, as well as a practical issue of accredited laboratories, how to monitor and analyze the development of the agre­ement/consensus of the sensory evaluation group (panel), regarding the series of measurements in a given period. For the evaluation of the consensus of the individual judgements, the sum of ranking differences (SRD) method is a good evaluation alter­native. The difficulty in analyzing rank sum patterns lies in the fact that the pairwise significant difference method for rank sum data was developed only a few years ago. In the present work, a combination of methods is recommended for tracing the con­sensus of sensory panelists.

 

1.     Introduction and literature review

 

When monitoring performance, what is tested is whether the sensory judge or the sensory evaluation group (panel) is capable of recognizing, identifying and measuring the given property, as well as using and interpreting it the same way as other judges or evaluation groups (panels) [1]. Testing and improve­ment of trained and expert panelists, and the meas­urement of their performance can typically be real­ized through a standardized, multi-stage system that is based on feedback and realized under standard­ized conditions, preferably with some kind of soft­ware support.

 read more ...

Searching for quality Hungarian products – the operation of the Hungarian Food Codex

Monday, December 5, 2016

Authors: Ágnes Szegedyné Fricz, Marianna Dömölki, Beatrix Kuti, Tekla Izsó, Dávid Szakos, Lajos Bognár, Gyula Kasza

 

1. Summary

The Hungarian Food Codex is presented in this article, and the role it plays in market regulation and the evolution of consumer awareness, and in addition to a historic over­view, the cardinal aspects of its operation are also discussed. Following this, through the results of our primary research, it is shown on what basis price-sensitive Hungar­ian consumers give their vote of confidence to Hungarian products. In this light, we consider how changes in quality requirements might affect in the future the attitudes revealed, since it is a fundamental task of the regulations in the Hungarian Food Codex that customers regard domestically produced foods as being of excellent quality.

 read more ...

The behavior of hypersensitivity-causing proteins during food processing

Tuesday, September 6, 2016

Authors: Kitti Török, Eszter Schall, Lívia Hajas, Zsuzsanna Bugyi, Sándor Tömösközi

 

Since the components causing hypersensitivity reactions (allergies, celiac disease) are usually proteins, therefore, learning about their potential changes is important from the food safety point of view. If the proteins undergo various structural modifications during processing, their determination in foods could be problematic. Nevertheless, the fact that these altered proteins cannot be detected using analytical methods does not necessarily mean that they cannot cause adverse reactions in the human body. Answering the questions that arise in connection with this topic requires the cooperation of patients, clinicians and analysts as well.

Foods intended for final consumption undergo several processing steps while going from raw material to final product. Each process that alters the structure of proteins is also expected to have an effect on their binding to antibodies. Food processing procedures cause a number of physical, chemical and biochemical changes that can affect the allergenic properties of a protein. Depending on the properties of the protein, the type, length and intensity of the processing operation, or the matrix, the allergenic effect of a protein can be increased, decreased, or left unchanged by processing.

 read more ...

Education of natural science in schools with help of experiments of food investigations

Tuesday, September 6, 2016

Authors: Margit Izsák, János Bozi, Eszter Imola Tisza-Kósa, Gergely Levente Szabó, András S. Szabó

Experiments play a particularly important role in the teaching of science subjects. Students are very fond of experiments performed with substances well-known to them, in our case, foods. In this article, ten simple physical, chemical and biological experiments are described in the following topics: microwave heating for mass and water content determination, discoloring a tea beverage, unscrewing the top of a jam bottle, changes in the texture of biscuits and bread during storage, dissolution and chemical reactions of cooking oil, thermal instability of margarine, determination of the acid degree value of milk, hydrolysis of egg protein, and protein denaturation.
Foods used in the tests and experiments are: ascorbic acid, lemons, citric acid, jam, cooking oil, fruit juice, fruit syrup, traditional tea, fruit tea, biscuits, bread, margarine, baking soda, milk and egg protein.
The experiments were designed at Congregatio Jesu Ward Mária Elementary School, High School and Music vocational School of Budapest, where the scientific, ethical and human education are on equaled level.

 read more ...

Selling and pricing practices in the direct sales of producer’s raw cow’s milk

Tuesday, September 6, 2016

Authors: András Jancsó, Gábor Császár, László Varga

 

Among our objectives were the presentation of the most well-known sales channels of raw milk, sales practices and also the technological level used, as well as the examination of the issues related to the pricing, critical points and challenges of the direct sales of raw cow’s milk. Our observations and samplings were performed at 21 direct sales locations of eight Budapest districts over 13 months, from June 2013 through June 2014.
Based on the results, it can be stated that, in the area studied, the sale of raw milk is realized through three main sales channels: markets (market halls), self-service systems (milk vending machines, refrigerated store containers) and different forms of mobile sales (tankers, regional home delivery system of producers). Further marketing practices can be distinguished within the different sales channels, where one can find the most primitive practice, the one without cooling, the traditional one and one that can be considered modern even when compared to Western European practice. The theoretical possibility to sell high quality raw milk was available for all sales channels, but the level of sales – especially from hygienic and technological viewpoints – ranged widely.

 read more ...

Stevia: beyond the sweetener

Tuesday, September 6, 2016

Authors: Ágnes Kemenczei, Tekla Izsó, Katalin Frecskáné Csáki, Anita Maczó,
Lajos Bognár, Gyula Kasza

 

More and more people use sweeteners as sugar substitutes, and among these, one can find products of both natural and artificial origin. One of the most popular ones among natural sweeteners is Stevia of plant origin, and the popularity of the use of dried Stevia leaves as tea has been increasing as well. There are approximately 150 to 300 species that belong to the genus Stevia. Of these, the best known is Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, and the sweetening power of the product, containing a mixture of glycosides, that can be obtained from its leaves, can be as high as 350 times of that of sugar. Before its authorization for use as a food additive in 2011, several evaluations were carried out regarding the safety of steviol glycosides, and finally an ADI value of 4 mg per kilograms of body weight was determined by the EFSA in 2010. Nonetheless, the Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plant itself and its dried leaves are currently classified in the European Union as not authorized novel foods. This is so, because steviol glycosides authorized as sweeteners contain 95% purified stevioside and/or rebaudioside A, while dried Stevia leaves contain a variety of other components. Research into the risks of these are still taking place.

 read more ...

Insects as “new” foods

Tuesday, June 7, 2016

Authors: Ágnes Kemenczei, Tekla Izsó, Lajos Bognár, Gyula Kasza

 

1. Summary
The rapid growth of world population and the scarcity of natural resources are serious problems from an agricultural point of view, therefore, sustainable food production is an increasingly important issue. According to researchers, insects could mean the solution to the impending “protein crisis”, among other things. In recent years, society's interest in the consumption of foods made of insects increased significantly in Europe, but it should be mentioned that entomophagy (the consumption of insects) is not a new phenomenon, because hints of it can already be found in the Bible. Several studies, discussing mainly the advantages and possible risks of insect consumption have already been prepared, however, our knowledge is still very limited. Although legislation is far from being uniform, we have to be prepared that, sooner or later, foods made of insects are likely to become part of our everyday diet.

 read more ...

Genetic purity testing of maize hybrids using a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric method

Tuesday, June 7, 2016

Authors: Zsanett Simon, Csaba Lovász
 

1. Summary
Mass spectrometry is one of the most versatile techniques of modern instrumental methodologies. Starting from the most sensitive analytical instruments, through application in space research, to the intelligent scalpel (iknife), there is almost no scientific area where the advantages of the method cannot be exploited. In this paper the application of mass spectrometry in a new area is presented.
From an economic point of view, maize is one of our most important crops 5 to 8 million tons of which is produced annually in Hungary. For this industrial scale production, high quality seeds are essential, and this requires a systematic, strict control of the seeds. In this spirit, identification and elimination of seeds of dubious origin or of poor quality are important tasks of growers and seed producers. Genetic purity of seeds the varietal identity is one of the most important qualification parameters.

Our research goal was to develop a state-of-the-art, effective analytical method to test the genetic purity and varietal identity of maize seeds, and to prove the applicability of our method by measurements.

 read more ...

Eye tracking tests in the consumer perception of a food

Tuesday, June 7, 2016

Authors: Eszter Kovács, Attila Gere, Dóra Székely, Zoltán Kókai, László Sipos


1. Summary

Eye tracking analyses provide an opportunity to record the eye movements of the participants, and then to evaluate the data obtained. The application of eye tracking cameras is not yet typical in the food industry in Hungary, as opposed to the practice in Western Europe, where this technology is an important and commonly used tool of product development and marketing support. To the best of our knowledge, no eye tracking analyses related to beets have been published so far in the domestic and international literature.

 read more ...

The effect of roasting on the oxidation stability of vegetable oils

Monday, June 6, 2016

Authors: László Somogyi, Anita Soós, Orsolya Visy, Orsolya Volent

1. Summary
In our work, we were looking to answer the question whether the oxidation stability of apricot kernel oil and walnut oil obtained by pressing changes due to roasting. It is well known that the organoleptic properties of vegetable oils can be favorably influenced by the roasting of the seeds before pressing. Our results support the fact that the oxidation status of the oil obtained changes due to processes that take place during roasting. Our results also showed that the extent of the changes due to roasting depended very much on the starting material, in fact, in certain cases, opposite effects were observed. For example, the oxidation stability of apricot kernel oil, which is more resistant to oxidation to begin with and is rich in oleic acid, was increased by roasting, while the oxidation stability of walnut oil, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, was adversely affected by roasting.
As a result of the measurements it can be stated that the oxidation stability of vegetable oils is fundamentally determined by their fatty acid compositions, and roasting can increase the resistance to oxidation of those oils that are already stable to begin with.

 read more ...

Edible film coatings for the packaging of pre-cooked poultry meat products (frankfurters)

Monday, March 21, 2016

Authors: Anna Kurucz, Ernő Gyimes

 

 

Cooked, seasoned meat pulp stuffed into intestines, i.e., frankfurter is also a popular products in Hungary. For the production of the packaging of the product, large amounts of artificial casings are used, which is peeled off in the households or manufacturing plants, and the casing is then thrown into the waste with no recycling. By using a suitable coating of plant origin, the amount of waste, as well as the cost of production can be reduced, therefore, improving the competitiveness of the product. Of the materials that may be relevant, food industrial use of alginates is quite diverse, however, they are not known as frankfurter casings. In this paper, a new and innovative frankfurter production technology is presented, which was tried at Merian Foods Kft., based in Orosháza.


Based on the experience gained during pilot productions, alginate casing proved to be suitable for the preparation of pre-cooked poultry meat products (frankfurter). Therefore, after gaining industrial experience, alginates can present an alternative to the protein- or cellulose-based artificial casings used today.

 read more ...

Analysis of meat products supplemented with omega-3 fatty acid sources

Monday, March 21, 2016

Authors: Attila Tanai, Zsuzsanna Lelovics, Anett Kovács, Hajnalka Hingyi, Éva Csavajda, Péter Kovács, Nándor Kovács, Gyöngyi Kanyó Princes, György Grosz, Tamás Tóth


Our research goal was to increase the n-3 fatty acid content of three meat products (letscho sausage, Kaiserroulade, duck liver pâté), so that the added value can be declared on the product labels. Increasing the amount of n-3 fatty acids was performed by the addition of flax seed sprout oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (min. 300 mg of alpha-linolenic acid/100 g or 100 kcal product) or fish oil rich in EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) (min. 40 mg EPA + DHA/100 g or 100 kcal product).


We found that the n-3 fatty acid proportion of the products tested were increased significantly (p < 0.05) by the oil supplements used. Of the products supplemented by bio flax seed sprout oil, letscho sausage performed the best, with an alpha-linolenic acid content of 644 mg/100 kcal, sufficient to be able to claim „rich in omega-3 fatty acids” on the label. The value was 575 for the Kaiserroulade and 504 mg for the duck liver pâté. These values allow the legitimate use of the statement „omega-3 fatty acid source”. The measured EPA + DHA content of the Kaiserroulade supplemented with fish oil was 99 mg/100 kcal, sufficient to be able to claim „rich in omega-3 fatty acids” on the label. The EPA + DHA contents of letscho sausage and duck liver pâté failed to reach the level required to be able to claim the above statement on the label by 1 and 4 mg/100 kcal, respectively.

 read more ...

Teaching chemistry, biology and physics with the help of food analytical experiments

Monday, March 21, 2016

János Bozi, András S. Szabó, Margit Izsák, Eszter Imola Tisza-Kósa,

Gergely Levente Szabó


 

Experiments are of particular importance in the school education of physics, biology and chemistry. Students welcome gladly if the subject of an experiment is some kind of food, well-known to them. In the current work, ten simple experiments of physical, chemical and biological nature are described. The foods analyzed or used in the experiments are apples, apple juice, potatoes, lemons, lemon juice, vinegar, food coloring, table salt, vegetable oil, beet sugar, baking powder, baking soda and gelatin.

 

 

In our previous article [1] we wrote that, in our opinion, presenting experiments has a particu­lar importance in the teaching of natural science subjects. If chemistry, biology and physics experi­ments – and, of course, there is no sharp dividing line between these subjects – form a major part of the education then, in all likelihood, it will be easier to arouse the interest of the majority of students in these subjects with practical real-life examples. By presenting experiments, i.e., by demonstration, our teaching will hopefully be more effective and more efficient. We can be confident that the knowledge of the students will expand and their logical thinking will develop and improve by forming conclusions from the observations. What is certain is that students participate more eagerly in lectures demonstrating experiments and so they might be more inclined to study the given subject [2], [3], [4], [5].

 

Online food shopping habits in Hungary

Monday, March 21, 2016

Authors: Barbara Bódi, Lajos Bognár, Gyula Kasza, Dávid Szakos

 

In recent years, the market segment of internet commerce has been developing intensively in Europe [6], although in Hungary, the growth rate had been lagging behind the European average for many years. A major part of the Hungarian population has only begun to show interest in the possibility of purchasing products and services online in the past five years, however, the trend is now clear in Hungary as well. While in 2012, only 35% of Hungarian internet users conducted online shopping transactions, by 2015 this ratio had increased to 47% [1].


The change in consumer habits is most clearly indicated by the fact that the percentage of regular internet users did not significantly change over the same period, it was 69% in 2012, and 72% in 2015 [3]. By comparing the two data sets it can be concluded that the increase in willingness to shop online showed a relative growth of exceptional proportions in Hungary, when compared to other EU member states. At the same time, according to the analysis of Eurostat, in 2015, food was put in the virtual shopping basket of Hungarians in only 10% of online purchases, which is far below the EU average (18%) [1]. When evaluating the results, we have to take into consideration that, in Hungary, only a very small number of webshops have foods in their portfolio, and online shops offering foods (as well) often cover only a small geographical area. Most certainly, the market share of online food purchases is expected to grow in the future, especially because of its convenient nature. According to the forecasts, the so-called consumer individualization will also grow at the same time, which could strengthen the segment of special foods (local, handcrafted and functional foods) [4].

 read more ...

Food analytical and sampling conference of Codex Alimentarius Committee of WHO/FAO in Budapest

Monday, March 21, 2016

Author: Gábor Szunyogh

 

The Codex Alimentarius Commission was established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1963. Documents and analytical standards developed by the Codex serve as the basis for regional and national food regulations, but they are not necessarily binding. At the same time, they provide great help in planning food compliance tests prior to international food transactions. Hungary has been an active participant in the work since 1963, and the annual sessions of the Codex Committee Measurement Analysis and Sampling (CCMAS) have been organized by Hungary since 1972. For the seventh year, WESS­LING Hungary Kft., a company operating independent laboratories, has been co-organizer of the event, together with the National Food Chain Safety Office (NÉBIH).

 

 

One of the most important international confer­ences of the global food safety was organized by the National Food Chain Safety Office (NÉBIH) at the end of February. WESSLING Hungary Kft., a company operating independent laboratories, has been co-organizer of an analytical and sam­pling symposium, and gave the chairman of the Hungarian Working Group of CCMAS.

 read more ...

Food safety risk perception of elementary school students

Tuesday, December 8, 2015

Ágnes Balogh-Berecz, Gyula Kasza, Barbara Bódi

 

It is among the key objectives of the National Food Chain Safety Office to increase consumer awareness regarding food chain safety, one of the most important conditions

of which is to obtain basic knowledge related to the purchase, handling, storage and consumption of foods. Mastering of this skill cannot be learned with the same efficiency

by an adult already possessing ingrained habits.

 

In this article, results of a food chain safety survey, performed among elementary school students, are presented by the authors. A small element number (n=267) pilot

questionnaire survey was conducted by NEBIH, together with Corvinus University of Budapest, with the participation of seven Budapest elementary schools belonging to

a network of eco-schools, i.e., schools that treat sustainability targets as priorities in education. During the study, fourth-grade (10 to 11 years old) students were asked, which could take place after obtaining written consent from the parents. To ascertain what the real situation was, kids were given help in filling out the questionnaire, however, we tried not to influence their answers.  read more ...

The sensory uniqueness of Hungarian paprika and its significance in imagemaking

Tuesday, December 8, 2015

Erzsébet Szabó, Viktória Szűcs

 

Kalocsa and Szeged paprika are among our most famous hungaricums. Changes that occurred in the paprika sector in recent decades (e.g., admixing of import paprika with

domestic commercial paprika due to decreasing domestic production) made the time right to research the unique properties of Hungarian paprika, in order to strengthen its

old reputation and promote its domestic marketing.

 

Following the selection of representative samples from ground paprika obtained from large and small domestic plants, from small producers and paprika importers (5 Kalocsa, 5 Szeged, 10 Hungarian and 10 imported paprika for admixing), a simplified expert sensory profile test and a user sensory ranking test (by non-professional consumers and hospitality professionals) were performed. By multifactor statistical analysis, the sensory difference between domestic and imported paprika samples was confirmed.

 read more ...

Refining customer exposure due to pesticide residues – Part 2

Tuesday, December 8, 2015

Andrea Zentai, Kata Kerekes, István J. Szabó, Árpád Ambrus

 

In the first part of our article principles of the point and probabilistic estimation of customer exposure were described. Individual crop weight distribution data and their characteristic properties, necessary for performing more accurate calculations, were also published.

 

In the current work, mathematical relationships used for the calculation of refinedprobabilistic exposure estimation are described, which can uniformly take into consideration the raw material proportions of complex foods, the effect of processing operations on the pesticide residue concentrations in the raw product, the pesticide residue concentration in the portion of produce to be consumed, and also the different pesticide residue concentrations in the individual crops. Based on the determination of pesticide residues in nearly 20000 individual crops, by applying the experimental data obtained in different produce groups, it is possible to determine customer exposure more accurately than using values taken by random sampling from parametric functions fitted on the basis of a limited number of results, which can approximate the real distribution only with substantial error. In order to facilitate more accurate estimation, individual variability factors and values characteristic of the main produce groups are published.

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Investigation of essentiality of nickel

Tuesday, September 29, 2015

Author: András S. Szabó

 

Because many investigations proved, that the concentration-distribution of essential and non-essential microelements within the healthy organisms shows significant difference, this fact can be used for clarification of the biological role of the given elements. In case of essential elements the concentration-range is narrow, the distribution is normal, in case of non-essential elements the interval is wide, the distribution is lognormal. Based on the measurements of Ni content of radish samples the conclusion was the following: for higher plants the nickel is not essential.

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Heat resistance examination of human pathogenic bacteria in sous-vide meat

Tuesday, September 29, 2015

Authors: András S. Szabó, Katalin Vajda, Jenő Szigeti, Balázs Ásványi, Petra Szűcs

 

The sous-vide technology belongs to mild heat treatment technologies in which pasteurized products are prepared. Due to the low temperature (55-90 °C) of the heat treatment, products have higher nutritional values and better organoleptic properties compared to conventional technologies. The basic requirement for this technology is to find the right balance between microbiological safety and organoleptic properties.

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Changes in the total water-soluble polyphenol content and antioxidant effect of coffee as a function of the roasting temperature

Tuesday, September 29, 2015

Authors: Anita Imre, László Somogyi, Anita Soós, Katalin Szántainé Kőhegyi

 

In our work, Brazilian arabica and Ugandan robusta coffee varieties were compared in terms of water-soluble polyphenol content and antioxidant effect, as measured by ferric reducing ability. Because, of secondary processing procedures, roasting has the greatest impact on the physical and chemical properties of coffee, measurements were performed as a function of roasting intensity, and they were also extended to determine the degree of weight loss and volume growth. In our study, roasting time was kept constant, only the temperature of the second stage of roasting was varied. Our results confirmed the fact that, at increasing roasting temperatures, the volume of coffee beans increases to a larger extent, while their weight gradually decreases.

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Effect of milk fat on the physical properties of margarine mixtures

Tuesday, June 30, 2015

Authors: Tekla Izsó, László Somogyi, Anita Soós, Ildikó Zeke

 

Margarine mixtures containing milk fat were compared to margarines not containing milk fat, in terms of their physical properties. Solid fat content and solidification profile was analyzed bya pNMR instrument, melting and crystallization properties by DSC, and viscosity by a rotational viscometer. Solid fat content of samples containing milk fat was higher in the 5-20 °C range, while at 30-35 °C the difference almost completely disappeared. Based on the solidification profiles, samples containing milk fat solidified more slowly initially, delayd solidification characteristic of milk fat was apparent. After reaching the final hardness, values of margarines not containing milk fat varied, while those of the ones containing milk fat remained stable. The shape of the curves obtained by DSC analysis were similar, no separate nuclei were formed by milk fat in the mixtures, but their crystallization was accompanied by the development of more heat than that of margarines not containing milk fat. No results were provided by viscosity analyses that would allow for drawing clear conclusions regarding milk fat.

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MS Excel-based method for the preparation of target-oriented sampling plans

Tuesday, June 30, 2015

Authors: Zsuzsa Farkas, Kata Kerekes, J. István J. Szabó, Árpád Ambrus

 

Introduction

 

For realistic evaluation of the results of control analyses, it is essential that it is performed in accordance with the purpose of the analysis. One of the prerequisites of the evaluation of the results using the usual statistical methods is random sampling, which means that each member of the predetermined population to be sampled (sampling frame) is chosen with the same probability. The sampling frame, in the case of stratified sampling, may include a subgroup of the whole population under investigation.


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Gut microbiota, an element of human microcosm affecting health – literature review

Tuesday, June 30, 2015

Author: György Biró

 

1. Summary

 

The sum total of the microorganisms of the intestinal tract, the microbiota forms a dynamic unit with the host organism, affecting physiological functions, health status and certain diseases through a web of interactions. Gut microbiota appears in the first hours of independent life, and accompanies the host organism, with greater or lesser changes, until its last vital signs. It affects intestinal functions, inflammatory disease processes, obesity. It is in connection with the central nervous system through neural connections and chemical contact, it can modify the activities of certain areas of the brain and the behavior, and it can contribute to the development of neurological diseases. It is linked to allergic and immune modulation processes, malignant tumors and type 2 diabetes, among other things.

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The effect of knowledge on the consumer acceptance of food additives

Tuesday, June 30, 2015

Authors: Viktória Szűcs, Erzsébet Szabó, Diána Bánáti

 

Summary

 

Partly because of consumer demand, and partly because of manufacturing and commercial aspects, our foods contain different additives, which is worrisome to some of the consumers. The goal of the present work was to study the level of knowledge related to additives, and the effect of the information provided in order to reduce the perceived risk.

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Share of domestic foods in the product range of Hungarian retail chains

Tuesday, June 30, 2015

Authors: Gyula Kasza – Barbara Bódi – Ágnes Vajda – Adrienn Somogyi

 

1. Summary


Detailed analysis of the product range of retail chains showed that there had been a significant improvement in the share of domestic products in the categories analyzed. In the case of 9 of the 10 chains included in the study, an increase was measured, and this is also true for the averages of both domestic and international chains. The survey also showed that the share of domestic manufacturers in the product range is extremely low in the case of certain high added value product categories (such as processed dairy products or ham), which should definitely be improved upon.

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Teaching of chemistry and physics in elementary and high schools with help of food science experiments

Tuesday, June 30, 2015

Authors: Andras S. Szabo, Margit Izsak, Janos Bozi

When teaching physics and chemistry in schools, experiments are of primary importance. Students are satisfied if the investigated materials are food samples, well known to them. This paper deals with 10 simple experiments of chemical, physical and sensory type. The following foodstuffs were investigated: sugar, salt, egg, milk, butter, margarine, fat, lemon juice, apple juice, vinegar, baking powder, sodium bicarbonate.
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Method development for the determination of antibiotics in milk samples using an on-line solid phase extraction UHPLC-MS/MS method Authors: Dr. Béla

Tuesday, March 31, 2015

Authors: Dr. Béla Kmellár, Judit Susán

 

1. Summary

Our objective was to develop a UHPLC-MS/MS method for the measurement of the most common antibiotics under regulation in milk, with which the time-consuming solid phase extraction sample preparation can be automated, and the sample can be enriched. This helps to achieve lower limits of detection, compared to off-line sample preparation. During method development, a routine method was developed that can be beneficial for any food testing laboratory with its excellent performance characteristics and low limits of detection. Its cost efficiency can also be noteworthy, because both time, equipment and chemical costs can be reduced by it.

 

2. Introduction

Analysis of trace contaminants in foods has been gaining ground in the last decades with the development of analytical techniques. The allowable amount of antibiotics in foods of animal origin is strictly regulated by the European Union [1]: MRL values are determined that can vary by matrix, as well as by compound. The list is updated from time to time: new antibiotics are covered by the regulation or the limit value of an already regulated one is altered, therefore, the relevant modification is always the latest one. It is the task of food testing laboratories to measure these trace quantities. The authority laboratory then gets involved in the food chain, depending on the results, since concentrations of antibiotics residues exceeding limit values are considered a food safety issue. Results are communicated to the customer by service laboratories. Because of the low limit values, low concentrations have to be measured reliably by the analytical laboratory, which requires sensitive and selective techniques.

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International and domes­tic fruit and vegetable consumption, methodo­logical issues

Tuesday, March 31, 2015

Authors: Géza Székely, Viktor Losó, Arnold Tóth

 

Summary

Fruit and vegetable consumption plays a multi-level inter­mediary role in the development of people’s health status and body weight. Even using state-of-the-art methods, it is hard to find unambiguous causality, because it has an especially complex biological and behavioral connection to health. The public burden imposed by illnesses related to low fruit and vegetable consumption is significant, but not the most significant. Definition of the fruit and veg­etable categories is not uniform, even though it is always related to their health significance, i.e. their nutrient and fiber contents. National and professional fruit and vegeta­ble consumption recommendations usually follow WHO recommendations, but do not always coincide with the latter. In addition to unfortunate methodological and in­terpretation difficulties, the goal in this case is to bridge the „attitude-behavior gap”, i.e. conquering the complex problem that people want to act differently from what they actually do.

Based on the data of the Household Budget Survey of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office (CSO-HBS), fruit and vegetable categories that are bought in the largest amounts are presented, according to settlement size, val­ue bought, quantity produced, as well as the size of the household.

 

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News of NÉBiH - Fresh orange lots satisfied quality requirements in all aspects

Tuesday, March 31, 2015

Summary

A series of authority product tests by the National Food Chain Safety Office (NÉBIH), also aimed at strengthening customer awareness, was launched last November, and the results of the tests are regularly published by the office on its Szupermenta (Supermint) blog as well. Different commercially available orange varieties, and also candied and dried orange products were tested between December 2014 and February 3, 2015. Testing was performed for 302 active substances and their metabolites according to standard MSZ EN 15662:2009. A full set of laboratory tests were performed by NÉBIH on dried and candied foods as well: pesticide residues, preservatives, artificial dyes and labeling prescriptions were checked. Fresh orange lots satisfied all quality requirements, however, a dried, candied cocktail orange product was recalled by NÉBIH.

 

All tested orange varieties, regardless of place of origin and without exception, satisfied legal regulations, according to which the minimal sugar-to-acid ratio is 6.5:1. Measured values were between 8.1 and 13.8. At the same time, the sugar composition was also in line with literature values. Based on this, the calculated total sugar content of the oranges was in the expected range of 5-10%, with the actual values being between 7.5 and 9.6%. The samples did not contain insecticide or fungicide residues in amounts exceeding the limit values, even though there were detectable quantities. There were no pesticide residues detected in (bio) samples coming from organic farming. The measured vitamin C content of oranges ranged from 38 to 74 mg/100 g (+/– 20 rel%), which could have been influenced by shipping and storage conditions. The values of the parameters measured could also depend on the variety, the time of harvest and the location of the growing site.

 

Some results of shape recognition research for the improvement of sen­sory food testing meth­ods of bakery products

Tuesday, March 31, 2015

Author: Pál Molnár

1. Summary

Multivariate statistical methods that can be run on com­puters, can can also be used for the classification of the sensory properties of foods. Sensory testing categories of „excellent”, „good”, „average”, „suitable” and „unsuitable” that are usually determined via a traditional classification procedure, can also be created by the normalization and statistical processing of product testing data with the help of a software. In this paper, a rough overview of the classifi­cation of bakery products, using numerical values obtained during sensory testing of product shape, crust, smell, taste and crumb, and weighting factors is given. Traditional clas­sification calculations and computerized evaluation based on shape recognition showed good agreement in the case of the products tested. The programs developed – in case of a suitable data population – can be applied to other products as well. With further refinements, such as ho­mogeneity analysis, shape recognition methods can help greatly the further development of not only sensory, but complex food testing.

2. Introduction

In the area of food classification, the complexity of the con­cept of quality, its dynamic change and relativity raise sev­eral problems, the solution of which, as well as decision making, inescapably need the application of the tools of system analysis. Type creation and classification, detec­tion of similarities and differences, recognition and numeri­cal quantification of the importance and the role of indi­vidual criteria and properties, establishing the connection between important characteristics is a very difficult and complex task. These are greatly aided by mathematical methods under the heading similarity theory or shape rec­ognition.

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Challenges and advantag­es in food analysis based on high performance liq­uid chromatorgaphy triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS)

Tuesday, March 31, 2015

Authors: Ádám Tölgyesi, László Tölgyesi, Lászlóné Békési, Sharma K. Virender, Jenő Fekete

 

1. Summary

In the Europea Union, maximum residue limits of pharmacologically active substances are determined by Commission Regulation (EU) No 37/2010. Residue analysis usually requires liquid chromatographic separation, coupled with optical or mass spectrometric detection. The latter detection method has become widespread by now in food testing laboratories and, because of its high selectivity, it can be used relatively easily for the measurement of complex samples. In the case of mass spectrometric detection coupled with liquid chromatographic separation, sample preparation can be reduced practically to a solid-liquid extraction, followed by a dilution or a solvent exchange, if the procedure is to be used as a screening method. When using the above-mentioned coupled technique as a confirmation method, in most cases a procedure without clean-up can only be achieved by coupling with an isotope dilution method. This is so, because – despite their relative simplicity and despite being a measurement with no interference – liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods require thorough optimization both in sample preparation and in the subsequent instrumental analysis, because the accuracy of the measurements could be greatly influenced by matrix components that are co-eluted with the target components but which are invisible to the measurement technique. To compensate for matrix effects, matrix-matched calibration or the isotope dilution method is usually used, but even these procedures do not always provide good or even available solutions, and so optical detection sometimes proves to be better (e.g. the determination of tetracyclines). A unique variation of the isotope dilution method is the exact-matching double isotope dilution mass spectrometry, which has a special place in the determination of the reference values of control samples.

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Predictive microbiological modeling, a tool of quantitative microbiological risk assessment Authors: József Farkas, Csilla Mohácsiné Farkas

Monday, January 12, 2015

Authors: József Farkas, Csilla Mohácsiné Farkas

 

After a brief recalling of the mathematical scaling of food preservation of nearly one hundred years ago, the article gives a short overview of the international development of predictive bacteriology, highlighting the role of a Hungarian mathematician working in England, József Baranyi, and soft­ware packages representing the tertiary models of predictive microbiology. Modeling of the propagation of molds and the formation of mycotoxins is also discussed in the paper. At­tention is also drawn to microbiological risk assessment ba­sed on the use of predictive modeling, and further research tasks of the topic.

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Estimation of the aspar­tame intake coming from foods and its risk assess­ment Authors: Katalin Frecskáné Csáki, Mária Szerleticsné Túri, Andrea Zent

Monday, January 12, 2015

Authors: Katalin Frecskáné Csáki, Mária Szerleticsné Túri, Andrea Zentai, László Mészáros, Renáta Prisztóka, Judit Sali, Mária Szeitzné Szabó

 

A study was performed by the Directorate of Risk Assess­ment of Food Safety of NÉBIH in order to determine how safe the consumption of aspartame is, based on domestic food consumption data, i.e. how close domestic aspar­tame intake is to the internationally accepted Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) value.

Aspartame exposition was estimated by NÉBIH-ÉKI us­ing three methods. Average and high intake levels can be estimated using the so-called FAIM (Food Additives Intake Model) model Excel template that can be down­loaded from the homepage of EFSA, by entering the limit values (allowed maximum usage levels) of the additive to be evaluated, and also based on food consumption data of member states, incorporated in the model and avail­able in the EFSA database. The second method is with the help of a so-called FACET (Flavourings, Additives and Contact Materials Exposure Task) software operating on probabilistic principles, made available to us at the end of 2013 and containing 2003 Hungarian food consump­tion data available also in the EFSA database. And the third method for estimation of the aspartame intake of the Hungarian population was by using our own developed probabilistic method based on the latest, 2009 domestic food consumption data, taking into consideration the daily consumption data of 4992 individuals.

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Relationship of measured physical and chemical parameters of linden honey samples

Monday, January 12, 2015

Authors: Mariann, Csóka; Pál, Tolnay; András S. Szabó

 

The colour, HMF content and diastase activity of honey are important quality parameters. In relation to the latter two characteristics, the Codex Alimentarius Hungaricus contains limit values in case of different honey types. The alteration of these physical and chemical parameters occurring at different heat treatment and storage and their correlations were examined. In all cases the results showed that the changes of these characteristics were more intensive at higher temperature.  read more ...

Determination of wheat grain hardness by different kernel measurement techniques

Monday, January 12, 2015

Authors: Balázs, P. Szabó; Antal, Véha; Ernő, Gyimes

 

The grain hardness is one of the most important parameter of wheat. On morphological level it depends on the adhesion of the protein matrix and starch granules. The correlation between the endosperm structure, and the resultant milled grain has long been investigated. In the present experiments the grain hardness of winter wheat varieties were examined with Lloyd 1000 R Testing Machine, where an innovative, quasi-static procedure was developed. The wheat grain was examined in two positions (vertical and horizontal). The Young’s modulus, the break work and the maximum breaking force were determined. The results were compared with other well-known method (Perten SKCS 4100 device). The method of pair correlation was applied for comparison study among the results. In case of our sample set (water content: 13,52 %), there were strong correlation among the Hardness Index and the Young’s modulus, the break work and between the maximum breaking force at vertical position. At horizontal position of the grains, the Hardness Index had robust correlation with the deformation modulus at compression, and adequate correlation with the breaking force. In the milling and baking industry the harder wheat grains expected to have higher quality. Our experiments can be helpful to distinguish the softer and harder grains.
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The active ingredients of peppermint in honey

Wednesday, October 1, 2014

Authors: Éva Nagy, József Prokisch, Lajos Daróczi, János Harangi

1. Summary

Apiarists let prepare by bees honey products containing medicinal drugs. Our aim was to prove that the active ingredients originated from the herbs are also present in the honey products. To fulfill that task we developed a method analyzing the volatile components of the syrup and honey prepared using the leaves of peppermint (Mentha x piperita).


That method involves a sample preparation by SPME followed by GC and GC-MS analysis. The analyses and the data evaluations proved that the volatile components of the herb containing syrups were transferred to honeys by bees. As the characteristic components of certain herbs could be identified also  in the honey product it is obvious that the components responsible for the medicinal effects (if they are not identical with the volatile components) are also transferred to honey.

 

 

 

 

Consumer research in the service of food chain safety supervision

Wednesday, October 1, 2014

Authors: Sarolta Barna , Gyula Kasza, Barbara Bódi

 

1. Summary

There have been significant changes in food chain safety supervision in the two and a half decades following the regime change. With the development of international trade, maintaining food safety became an increasingly complex procedure, however, by using targeted monitoring programs extending to the whole food chain, possible risks are more easily identified and become easier to avoid. In addition to efficient methodological and institutional developments, the significance of cooperation with consumers increased as well. It was recognized in time by Hungary that steps needed to be taken in this area, and the result of these steps was an improved food safety consciousness on the part of the population, and also a more positive opinion about authority activities and, through this, the safety of Hungarian foods. Personal interviews related to food safety were already conducted in Hungary in the early 2000s, in a non-standardized way.

 

The National Food Chain Safety Office launched its own investigation related to consumer risk perception and risk

avoidance behaviour related to food safety in 2012, which has been repeated since twice a year, using a standardized methodology. These data provide precise feedback for the preparation for policy decisions, facilitating greatly the effective implementation of the objectives of the Food Chain Strategy 2013-2022. A few elements of the results of this series of research are presented in the current paper.

 

Testing of the microbiological efficiency of disinfectants used in the food industry (2002-2013)

Wednesday, October 1, 2014

Authors: Zsuzsanna Németh, Judit Holczhauzerné Faragó, Márta Gulyás


1.Summary

Disinfectants used in the food industry play an important role in preventing foodborne diseases. They can perform to thier fullest potential if they are applied in the proper concentration, at the proper temperature, for the proper contact time, as determined by preliminary studies. This paper summarizes the test results of 12 years and, in addition to the efficiency testing necessary for the licensing procedure, it also presents results of control tests of commercially available disinfectants, and provides insight into the efficiency in practice of disinfectants sampled in connection with food infection cases.

 

2. Introduction

Since food is an excellent source of nutrients not only to humans, but also to microbes, it is an essential requirement for foods not to become contaminated with microorganisms during the steps of their manufacture. Disinfectants used during food production are expected to possess bactericidal and fungicidal effects.

 

Changes in the diastase activity of linden honey due to heat treatment, and during storage

Wednesday, October 1, 2014

Authors: Mariann Csóka, Pál Tolnay, András S. Szabó

 

1. Introduction

Of the enzymes found in honey, diastase is one of the most important ones, in fact, there is a separate limit value given for this parameter in the regulation of the Hungarian Food Codex regarding honey. Generally, the minimum diastase number is 8 (see definition later), or in the case of honey with low natural enzyme content, the expected value is at least 3. Diastase (a mixture of α- and β-amylase) is an enzyme that breaks down starch, which results mainly in maltose. The enzyme enters the honey during ripening from the hypopharyngeal secretions of bees, and its quantity is influenced by the composition and concentration of the nectar, the age of the bees and the intensity of the nectar flow [3]. Its presence in honey is one of the basic criteria of genuineness. Good quality honey usually has a high diastase activity.

 

The diastase content of honey can decrease significantly due to long-term storage or heat treatment, but is also known that certain types of honey (e.g. acacia, orange, eucalyptus) contain low concentrations of diastase to begin with. This is explained by the fact that the nectar of certain plants has a higher dry matter content, therefore, less enzyme material is added to it during the shorter thickening period by the bees.


Of the parameters routinely analyzed in honey, determination of diastase activity has the highest measurement uncertainty, therefore, relatively large deviations (20 to 30%) from the average are accepted by accreditation bodies during international proficiency tests. The diastase activity of honey can be determined based on the degree of degradation of starch [2],[4],[6],[7],[8],[9]. Generally, a starch solution of a given concentration and honey are incubated together, and at the end of the experiment either the amount of remaining (undegraded) starch solution or that of the fragments is determined, usually by a spectrophotometric method.

 

The characteristic value thus determined is the Goethe number (diastase number), which specifies the amount of 1% starch solution in ml that is degraded over one hour at 45-50 °C by the diastase enzyme contained in 1 g of honey. This value is usually somewhere between 10 and 18, but in the case of certain types of honey it can be lower (8-10) or higher, depending on the species. The lower limit is 8, below this the honey is considered spoiled or bad quality.


Too low enzyme activity might indicate unripeness, inappropriate storage or improper heat treatment, therefore, diastase activity is one of the

important parameters of honey qualification [1]. This factor is also greatly influenced by the acid content of honey: its optimum operating pH is between 5.0 and 5.2, at neutral pH the enzyme activity is low, and at strongly acidic pH (pH < 3.3) the enzyme decomposes rapidly. In the present paper, investigations of the effects of storage and heat treatment on diastase activity are reported, in the case of linden honey.

 

Mycotoxins in masks – a new food and feed saftey challenge?

Wednesday, October 1, 2014

Authors: József Farkas, Mária Szeitzné Szabó, Csilla Mohácsiné Farkas

 

1.Summary

The realization is spreading that toxins of toxinogenic molds colonizing host plants during plant growing are altered by the host plants as part of their defense: extractable conjugates are formed from them („masked” mycotoxins), or they are immobilized as cell wall components or are bound to other biopolymers in a way that they cannot be extracted („hidden” mycotoxins). Masked or hidden mycotoxins are not taken into consideration when estimating mycotoxin exposure, under current routine analytical and control-legislative conditions. Examples of just such mycotoxin derivatives, and analytical and other research tasks related to them are given in the present brief overview, which is aimed at raising awareness.

 

2. Introduction

Several mold species have become feeding-animal health and food supply problems of decisive significance in the last few decades, due to their production of different toxins [1]. Therefore, determination of contamination caused by mycotoxins is among the important tasks of food and feed control, and also of legislation. The problem has been increasing worldwide, because of weather extremities, causing increased stress to our cultivated crops, becoming more frequent and severe, among other things, and also because of the increased exposure of the host plants to molds [2],[3]. The most important challenge is posed by toxinogenic molds colonizing/contaminating corn and wheat, which are among cereals forming the basis of our food supply. This problem affects all populated areas of the Earth [4], although the nature of mycotoxins and main host plants are different in the different regions.

 

The presence of glyphosate residues in our environment and possibilities for their analytical determination 1. Summary

Wednesday, October 1, 2014

Authors: Tamás János Szigeti, Gabriella Suszter, József László

 

1. Summary

When, in 1974, agricultural producers first learned about the then brand new herbicide glyphosate, promising great benefits, who would have thought that in close to forty years the molecular biology industry would be producing plants that will prolong for the unforeseeable future the triumphant march of an active ingredient that seemed to become obsolete? Glyphosate – N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine – was patented by the American company Monsanto as a future herbicide in 1971. The product containing the compound was given the trade name „Roundup”. It acts by entering plant leaves and inhibiting the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), preventing the the synthesis of amino acids containing aromatic rings (phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan).


Thus, within a few days after the absorption of the spray, the plant dies. Glyphosate can also be applied in vegetable gardens against agressively spreading couch grass, however, in our own experience, if slightly overdosed, as a total herbicide, it can wipe out the cultivated plants of the garden as well.

 

In the late 1980s, a new chapter has begun in the agrotechnical application of the results of research in molecular biology. The first genetically modified plants produced outdoors appeared. Among these was Roundup Ready Soybean (RR soybean) resistant to glyphosate, probably the „product” of greatest significance. The patent for RR soybean is also owned by Monsanto.

 

The increasing rate of use of glyphosate and the fact that, according to a European survey, the presence of the compound was detected in the urine of 182 people at a frequency of 44%, encouraged us to set up a method in the laboratories of WESSLING Hungary Kft. for the determination of glyphosate residues in foods of vegetable and animal origin, and agricultural products. LC-MS-MS technique was used for the measurements with an electrospray ion source and negative ionization. Identification of the compound in the LC-MS-MS system was performed by monitoring the 16863, 16879 and 168150 transitions. The method developed was validated by the analysis of sample extracts obtained from apples and cow’s milk. In addition, an on-going validation has also been performed using the analytical performance characteristics obtained while analyzing other matrices received by the laboratory. With our method, an average recovery of R=79.4% and a relative standard deviation of RSD=12.6% was achieved at the 10 and 100 μg/kg levels. Thus, repeatability and accuracy of our method were deemed satisfactory.

 

We hope that we can contribute to the imporvement of food and environmental safety of Hungary with the  laboratory analysis of the residues of this herbicide molecule.

 

Potential application areas of biological control for the inhibition of pathogenic bacteria of food origin

Wednesday, October 1, 2014

Author: Ágnes Belák

 

1. Summary

Today, food safety is already a known and well-defined concept for consumers. In order to maintain their health, they pay more and more attention to the consumption of good quality food rich in vitamins and minerals, and it is also extremely important for them that the food consumed does not cause any health damages. Current trends have always had an effect on the dietary habits of consumers, therefore, the interest in ready-to-use foods produced with minimal processing increased significantly in recent years. However, pathogenic microorganisms causing serious illnesses are often contained in these products, and so their consumption can lead to even death, in more severe cases.


Application of biological control as an alternative technology can contribute to putting safer products on the consumer’s table, containing no chemical preservatives.

 

2. Introduction

Consumption of foods contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms can lead to serious illnesses, even – in severe cases – to death. In addition to these health risks, food-borne pathogenic microorganisms can also cause considerable economic damages. Therefore, it is an important task to perform an in-depth analysis of the  proliferation of pathogenic bacteria and factors influencing it, in order to protect the health of consumers and to reduce economic losses.


Of ecological factors influencing proliferation, the composition and size of microbial populations and the interactions of the members of the population have great significance, with respect to the growth, survival and sirulence of pathogenic bacteria.

 

Review of national standardization

Wednesday, October 1, 2014

Authors: Csilla Kurucz - Gabriella Csík

 

Implemented national standards from June to September, 2014: The following Hungarian standards are commercially available at MSZT (Hungarian Standards Institution, H-1082 Budapest, Horváth Mihály tér 1., phone: +36 1 456 6892, fax: +36 1 456 6884, postal address: H-1450 Budapest 9., Pf. 24) or via website: www. mszt.hu/webaruhaz.

 

 


 

Consumer research in the service of food chain safety supervision

Tuesday, September 30, 2014

Authors: Sarolta Barna , Gyula Kasza, Barbara BódiAuthpors:

1. Summary

There have been significant changes in food chain safety supervision in the two and a half decades following the regime change. With the development of international trade, maintaining food safety became an increasingly complex procedure, however, by using targeted monitoring programs extending to the whole food chain, possible risks are more easily identified and become easier to avoid. In addition to efficient methodological and institutional developments, the significance of cooperation with consumers increased as well. It was recognized in time by Hungary that steps needed to be taken in this area, and the result of these steps was an improved food safety consciousness on the part of the population, and also a more positive opinion about authority activities and, through this, the safety of Hungarian foods. Personal interviews related to food safety were already conducted in Hungary in the early 2000s, in a non-standardized way.

 read more ...

Clostridium difficile: a new food safety hazard?

Tuesday, July 1, 2014

Autors: József Farkas and Csilla Mohácsiné Farkas

 

 

When the gut microbiota is damaged by antibiotics, life-threatening inflammation of the colon can be caused in persons with a weakened immune system by highly virulent strains of Clostridium difficile, an anaerobic spore-forming and polypeptide toxin producing bacterium. C. difficile infection (CDI) has become an epidemic problem of paramount importance in hospitals. In the present paper, surveying relevant recent literature, attention is called to the problem that this pathogen can potentionally zoonotic and might be transmitted with foods. Although there are no proven cases of foodborne CDI, strains of epidemiological importance of the bacteria have been isolated from different foods more or less frequently in recent years.

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The role of colony count in water supply

Tuesday, July 1, 2014

Autors: Beatrix Párkány-Simon, Dr. Anikó Brumbauer


Drinking water is one of the most strictly controlled foods, characterized by the fact that its chemical and physical properties are by and large stable, but it is a biologically active medium, which is controlled by water companies using disinfection. In addition to bacteria indicating fecal contamination, so-called indicator organisms, such as colony counts, also play an important role in checking the efficiency of the treatment.

 

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Arsenic analysis in drinking water and foods

Tuesday, July 1, 2014

Autors: Éva Sugár, Viktor Gábor Mihucz, Gyula Záray

 

According to community regulation, the arsenic content of drinking water in the European Union cannot exceed 10 µg/L. However, before harmonization, the allowable arsenic concentration according to Hungarian regulation was 50 µg/L. The authors of this study investigated whether it is justified, in view of domestic drinking water and food consumption data, to apply arsenic limits prescribed by the EU, that are much stricter than the former Hungarian regulation.

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Possibilities of trace element content determination in liquid foods without destrucitve sample preparation using ICP-MS technology

Tuesday, July 1, 2014

Authors: Áron Soós, Dávid Andrási, Béla Kovács

In this review, non-destructive sample preparation techniques were summarized as possible alternatives to the traditional dry ashing and wet digestion for liquid food samples in ICP-MS measurements. The most important disadvantages of destructive techniques are the high dilution factor, the high risk of cross-contamination, and being considerably time-consuming. The lack of destruction causes organic components to remain behind, resulting in the emergence of spectral and, more often, non-spectral/matrix effects.

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Bacterial Communication And Its Importance In Food Science

Monday, March 24, 2014

Authors: Jozsef Farkas and Csilla Mohacsi-Farkas

 

Summary

 

Contrary with past considerations, bacteria are highly versatile beings. They are able to communicate not only within their community but interspecies, and eventually to higher plants and animals. They are producing specific signalling molecules inducing various gene expressions in other beings. This chemical communication is called quorum sensing. The lecture summarizes some recent information on this “social” behaviour of bacteria, particularly on its role in biofilms, food spoilage and food-related pathogenesis. Recent findings show that medically important antibiotics evolved in the nature not only to kill competitors but for communication. It is important to develop methods for detecting the signalling molecules and to understand better the quorum sensing inhibitors to develop new tools for enhancing food preservation and food safety.

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Alteration in linden honey colour properties by storage and heat treatment

Monday, March 24, 2014

Authors: Mariann Csóka, Pál Tolnay, Andras S. Szabó

 


Change of Colour Parameters of Linden-Honey as a Function of Heat Treatment and Storage Colour and rheological properties are important physical parameters, determining the price on world-market, as well. Transport and storage for long time, not appropriate conditions for processing can have a negative effect on the quality, influencing the sensory properties, as well.

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Changes in mineral and protein content of wheat flour due to fertilizers

Monday, March 24, 2014

Authors: Zita Kata Burján, Dávid András1, Zoltán Gy

 

Abstract

 

In this study the effect of different NPK doses on the contents of K, P, S, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Sr and protein were investigated in the flour of winter wheat. Samples were collected from Nagyhörcsök which is one of the experimental stations of the Hungarian National Long-term Fertilization Trials. The elements content of samples were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer followed by digestion with HNO3-H2O2 solution. The protein content was determined using Khjeldal method.

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Dairy product development by the modification of fatty acid composition

Monday, March 24, 2014

Authors: Zsuzsanna Kárnyáczki and Berta Vanda Óré-Sütő


Summary

 

Nowadays due to increased stress, sedentary lifestyle and improper nutrition cardiovascular diseases become more frequent. The right amount of omega-3 fatty acids in our diet plays a very important role in the prevention of these diseases. It was investigated whether feeding rape or sunflower seed to dairy cows or the addition of Specidol (fatty acid product) to milk has effect on the fatty acid content of dairy produces (yogurt, cheese) and to what extent. Feeding oily seeds increased unsaturated and essential fatty acid content in milk and it can be  possible to preserve in yogurt and cheese. Rapeseed feeding helped omega-6 and omega-3 ratio to approach a close to optimal level in yogurt. Large proportion of unsaturated fatty acids could be preserved during cheese processing though the ratio shifted in a less favorable direction. Results show that increase of unsaturated fatty acid content in milk and milk products can be increased naturally by altering feeding. Reaching favorable fatty acid composition in milk products enables the production of functional dairy products without any special additives.

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Possibilities for the decrease of aflatoxin contamination in food chain

Monday, March 24, 2014

Authors: Katalin Frecskáné Csáki, Mária Szeitzné Szabó, Mária Szerleticsné Túri

 

Abstract

 

Aflatoxins are mycotoxins produced by various species of Aspergillus moulds. Aflatoxins are genotoxic carcinogens which are associated with an increased risk of hepatic tumors. Previously, mainly plant products from tropical regions might contain aflatoxin contamination (e.g. peanuts, pistachios, dried fruits, spices) in the Hungarian market. However, owing to the climate change now we also have to expect the presence of aflatoxin contamination in the maize cultivated in Hungary.

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Changes in nutritional values during the ripening of cucumber (Cucumis sativus)

Monday, March 24, 2014

Authors: Csaba Orbán, Éva Csajbók, Andrea Dobronszki


Abstract

 

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is one of the most preferred vegetable among the Hungarian population. Altought many article can be found about the vitamin, polyphenol content and antioxidant-activity comparison of cucumber  with other vegetables, there are only limited available information about the physiological and nutritional changes of cucumber during the ripening processes of the fruit. One of our aim was to study the peroxidase (POX)-, glutathione-S-transferase – enzyme (GST) activity changes, which indicate the physiological status of the plant tissues. Chlorophyll content and antioxidant-activity alteration via the ripening processes were also assessed.

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