Near-infrared spectroscopy: rapid and effective tool for measuring fructose content

Author:  Haruna Gado YAKUBU, Zoltán KOVÁCS, Flóra VITÁLIS, György BÁZÁR


Since high fructose intake was found to be associated with increased health risks, it is important to raise awareness towards the amount of this widely used sugar within foods and beverages. The rapid and accurate detection and quantification of sugar types is not an easy task using conventional laboratory technologies. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been proven to be a useful tool in this regard, and the present study highlights the applicability of this rapid correlative analytical technology in the measurement of fructose concentration against that of other sugars in aqueous solutions of sweeteners. The presented NIR calibrations are accurate for the relative measure of °Brix (R2 = 0.84), and the direct measurement of the individual sugars (R2 > 0.90) even in solutions with multiple sugars.



VOL. 67, 31 MARCH 2021



Welcome 2021/1



Dear Readers,


Based on the decision of our publisher and our editorial board, paper-based distribution of the scientific journal will be discontinued and our articles will be published in electronic form in an open access system, which means that our Readers will have free access to the entire material of ÉVIK published so far without registration and subscription. The manuscripts can be downloaded individually or the volumes, still published quarterly, can be downloaded as a single file from the website, as before.

On the base of our agreement with the of the Library and Information Centre of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the scientific papers of ÉVIK published since 2014 are provided with a Digital Object Identification (DOI). The permanent prefix of the DOI of is, followed by the abbreviation of the name of the journal and a string allowing the unique identification of the articles. Our Hungarian and English articles will have separate DOIs, which means that a single manuscript will have two DOIs. The letters HUN will appear at the end of the string belonging to the article in Hungarian, while the abbreviation ENG will appear at the end of the string for the English version.

One of the basic conditions for the assignment of DOIs is that the DOIs of the literature sources listed in the bibliography of the manuscripts must also be provided, if they exist. One of the most effective search applications is available at the bibliography entered into its input field is completed by the application in a few minutes with the DOIs of the literature sources. We kindly ask our Authors that in the future please enclose bibliographies with DOIs with the submitted manuscripts. By being included in the DOI system, the materials of ÉVIK will also be part of the repository of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences called the Hungarian Scientific Bibliography Database. Scientific works stored in its database are forwarded by the Library to related databases, which means that we will be able to establish a closer relationship with the SCOPUS system of Elsevier, for example.

We also ask our authors that, in the future, please provide their Open Researcher and Contributor IDs (ORCID) when submitting a manuscript, so that they can be identified with great certainty in the databases of scientific works. ORCIDs can be requested free of charge at, or existing IDs can be retrieves from there.

The appearance and logical structure of the ÉVIK website will be completely transformed by the middle of 2021. Designing the graphic and logical structure of the new website is currently underway. On the new website, our services will be available in a more logical structure, and in addition to our existing services and search options, new ones will also be provided.



Dr. Tamás János Szigeti


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Regulation of nutrition labeling of foods in the European Union and Hungary; A historical review from the beginning to the present day fructose content

Author: Beatrix KUTI, Márta HORACSEK, Dávid SZAKOS, Gyula KASZA


Food labeling is one of the most diverse areas of food law, and special attention is paid to nutrition labeling within this area. This is not a coincidence, as modern nutrition science is evolving year by year, and legal changes must also keep pace with this. Nutrition labeling is particularly important for those who struggle with obesity or certain metabolic diseases or have special nutritional needs for other reasons. In a somewhat unusual way, the regulation of nutrition labeling has not appeared primarily in regulations at the national level, but its development began within an international framework, with the first breakthrough being the Codex Alimentarius and the expert work carried out within it. Hungary has been participating in this work since the beginning, so the Hungarian regulation, regardless of historical periods, has been relatively harmonized with the current best labeling practices in the world, with complete harmonization taking place by the time Hungary was on the verge of joining the European Union. In this study, we look back at the most important international, EU and Hungarian steps in the development of the regulation, not only presenting legal changes, but also comparing them to the changing requirements of the various periods. In addition to the current regulatory environment and challenges for nutrition labeling, key voluntary labeling schemes are also included in this communication.

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Investigation of the shelf life of fruit yogurts as a function of the treatment of flavoring substances



Milk and dairy products represent one of the foundations of the human diet because of their valuable ingredients and pleasant sensory properties. The aim of our research was to investigate how different heat treatment processes (microwave irradiation, drying) affect the shelf life of dairy products (yogurt) from a microbiological point of view. In the course of our measurements, the effects of the different heat treatment parameters of the flavoring substances used in the production of the products (apples, bananas) on the microbiological properties of the products and, thus, on their shelf life were investigated. In our experiments, conventional drying (55 °C, 24 hours) and microwave irradiation technology (800 W, 55 °C, 10 min) were used as treatment forms of the additives. Comparisons were made in terms of microbiological parameters (total viable count, yeast/mold count and E. coli/coliform count). Based on our results, we believe that the drying process can ensure microbiological safety in food production if the air circulating in the equipment has adequate hygienic properties. The microwave irradiation technology can be used successfully to inhibit microbes in foods, in this case fruits. However, the same treatment parameters cannot be applied to different fruits.

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Research and development of production technology for mayonnaise sauce of functional purpose

Author: Aleksandr LUKIN


We studied functional properties of pine nut oil cake, used as a protein concentrate, and those of β-carotene, used as a natural antioxidant, and their effect on organoleptic, physical, chemical, and rheological properties of mayonnaise sauces. The aim of the work was to develop a functional mayonnaise sauce and to study the quality indicators of the finished product where egg powder was partially replaced with a protein concentrate, namely, pine nut oil cake. The use of β-carotene in the sauce formula allowed not only to enhance the color of natural egg products, but also to increase the oxidation stability of the fatty phase of the sauce and to extend its shelf life. A reference sample and samples with 1%, 2%, and 3% pine nut oil cake instead of egg powder were subject to study. The dosage of 3% pine nut oil cake instead of egg powder was considered the most preferable to be introduced into the formula.

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Using brewer’s spent grain as a byproduct of the brewing industry in the bakery industry

Author:  Vivien NAGY, Gerda DIÓSI


The utilization of food industry byproducts is one of today’s important environmental and economic tasks. Byproducts that form during food production are typically used for feed purposes, but in many cases these materials can also be used in the production of human foods. The brewer’s spent grain left behind after brewing beer is a byproduct with favorable nutrition parameters, with low sugar and high fiber and protein contents. The main objective of our experiments was the reintroduction of brewer’s spent grain into the food industry, with a focus on innovation and sustainable development, by utilizing it in commercially available bakery products (salty medallions / wafers) formulated and regulated in the Hungarian Food Codex. Brewer’s spent grain consists of vegetable proteins and fibers (inactive malt), which may improve the compositional characteristics when preparing bakery products. In the course of our research, medallions enriched with brewer’s spent grain were prepared, of the beneficial parameters of which its high dietary fiber content should be highlighted, which can contribute to the realization of a health-conscious diet for consumers. A diet rich in dietary fiber, combined with an adequate amount of exercise, can reduce the risk of developing certain diseases (e.g., cancer and cardiovascular diseases).

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Review of national standardization

Author: Anna Szalay


The following Hungarian standards are commercially available at MSZT (Hungarian Standards Institution, H-1082 Budapest, Horváth Mihály tér 1., phone: +36 1 456 6893, fax: +36 1 456 6841, e-mail:, postal address: H-1450 Budapest 9., Pf. 24) or via website:

Published national standards from September 2020 to November 2020

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