Application of in vitro human digestion models in the field of nutrition science
Author:Otilia Antal, Emőke Némethné Szerdahelyi, Krisztina Takács
Simulating digestion that takes place in the gastrointestinal tract is a widely used procedure in various fields of food and nutrition science, as well as in the pharmaceutical industry, as it is less costly and labor-intensive in human clinical trials and animal experiments, while not raising ethical issues either. The process of digestion converts nutrients and bioactive compounds in foods into physiologically active compounds. In vitro digestion models have been proved to be effective tools for the complete understanding and observation of the complex transformation processes that occur during digestion. Of course, in vitro studies cannot be substitutes for in vivo experiments, but they play a key role in the pre-screening, ranking and classification of samples before in vivo studies.
The last days of November passes as we make the final touches on the fourth issue of ÉVIK 2020. Winter is late, but the colourful leaves of autumn have already fallen. „When a sighing begins, / In the violins / Of the autumn-song, / My heart is drowned / In the slow sound / Languorous and long.1” The reader is holding the last printed version of the 65-year-old Journal of Food Investigation (JFI – ÉVIK). According to the decision of the Publisher of the scientific journal, from 2021 the periodical will only be published in electronic form with the usual content and frequency on the website www.eviko.hu. Scientific publications will continue to be published quarterly in Hungarian and English in the Open Access system. The structure of the journal will be redesigned for easier reading due to its online appearance. We hope that with this publication we can keep the honourable trust of our authors and the interest of our Readers. Our leading article is written by Antal Otilia and co-authors. In their manuscript, they report on systems that model digestive processes in the human gastrointestinal tract. With in-vitro digestion experiments – which the authors themselves carry out on an ongoing basis – it helps more detailed to understand the digestive and absorption processes of food ingredients and their effects on human health. The authors conduct their digestion experiments as part of the COST INFOGEST program, which covers researchers from 32 countries. There is a passionate debate in some segments of society about the environmental impacts and ethical perceptions of real meat consumption. Experts and lay people often argue whether it is appropriate to imitate the organoleptic properties of foods made from meat in the case of foods included in a meat-free diet. In her literature review, Diána Bánáti reports on food production technologies seeking to meet the growing needs of vegan and vegetarians through the “reform-nutrition” movements, the current European food law situation of the topic and the consumer opinions collected in questionnaire interviews. In the second part of dissertation of Dóra Kiss et al. summarizing simplified, photometric amino acid analytical methods. Prepared a literature review of the analysis of two non-aromatic, essential and semi-essential amino acids – respectively methionine, cystine, lysine, arginine. Rita Székelyhidi and co-authors made a literature review on the application of sample preparation based on solid phase microextraction (SPME) to the testing of several dairy products. Their dissertation summarized the extraction possibilities of fatty acids, aldehydes, esters, alcohols, sulfur-containing organic compounds, furans, phenols and terpenoids. A description of the methods for the separation detection of compounds is available to readers in the bibliography of the manuscript, which includes 74 references. In the manuscript of László Sipos’ working group summarise several vision tests for sensory testing persons. The paper describes the methods of colour, shape recognition and image resolution control of vision. The work of Ágota M. Kovács and Mária H. Takácsné is about the, micro-vegetables products, which expands the possibilities of supplementing vegetables in the diet. Micro-vegetables – microgreens in Anglo-Saxon terminology – are green parts of plants that are more developed than seedlings but younger than adult plants and may contain higher amounts of vitamins and minerals valuable to humans than traditional vegetables. I am proud to inform you that a member of our Editorial Board, Prof. Dr. János Csapó, a university professor, was awarded a bronze plaque of the Tree of Life on October 23, 2020 for his outstanding work. The price was presented by Dr. István Nagy, Hungarian Minister of Agriculture. On behalf of our editorial board, I happy to congratulate for him and I wish for him further success, health and happy years in his private life. I wish our readers good reading, a happy preparation for Advent, and a gracious, blessed Christmas, and Happy New Year.
Dr. Tamás János Szigeti
Paul Verlaine: Autunm Song (Translated: Arthur Symons)
Veggie burgers, vegan meats? The ruling of the European Parliament paved the way for meat substitutes with meat denominations
Author: Diána Bánáti
Our food system is no longer fit for the 21st century. The ways we grow food and process it are undermining our health, and are not fit to meet the needs of a growing global population. Cellular agriculture and plant-based alternatives are on the rise. The production of lab-grown meat is gaining momentum and attracts investors. Plantbased diets are gaining importance both for health- and environment-conscious consumers and from sustainability point of view. Demand for plant-based protein products is rapidly expanding beyond just burger analogues to new and novel products in several countries.
Determination of amino acid composition of foods by photometric methods, Part 2 - Determination of methionine, cystine, lysine and arginine
Author: Dóra Kiss, Réka Juhászné Tóth, Zsófia Zurbó, János Csapó
In the second part of our review paper on the photometric determination of the amino acid content of foods, methods of determination of two essential amino acids (methionine, lysine) and two semi-essential amino acids (cystine, arginine) reported in the literature are described. Selective determination of the two sulfur-containing amino acids is made possible by the fact that both the methylmercapto group of methionine and the sulfhydryl group of cysteine formed by the reduction of cystine can be subjected to specific derivatization reactions which are characteristic of only these amino acids.
Evaluation of various microgreen vegetables
Author: Ágota Kovácsné Madar, Mária Takácsné Hájos
As the world’s population grows, more attention needs to be paid to producing foods that provide adequate nutritional value. Microgreens, which are becoming more and more popular today, can be considered such foods. Vegetables in the microgreen category become edible within 7 to 14 days when the cotyledons are fully developed and the first true leaves appear. Compared to adult plants, microgreens have a much higher nutritional value, they contain significant amounts of vitamins (ascorbic acid, tocopherol), minerals and phytonutrients. The amount of these bioactive substances is greatly influenced by environmental factors, including humidity, temperature and light intensity. In our experiment, microgreens prepared species belonging to various plant families, such as Brassicaceae (mustard, radish), Chenopodiaceae (beetroot, Swiss chard) and Lamiaceae (basil), were evaluated based on the (Ca2++Na+)/(Mg2++K+) ion ratio, yield, dry matter and vitamin C content. Microgreens were allowed to develop up to a germination state of 90% protected from light in a germination chamber at a controlled temperature (24-25 °C) and humidity (6570%). Following germination, after 2 to 3 days, the germination trays were placed in the experimental space of the greenhouse.
Vision tests of sensory judges - review
Author: László Sipos, Ákos Nyitrai, Dániel Szabó1, Ágnes Urbin, Balázs Vince Nagy
In sensory examinations, judges must be in good general health. They should not have any deficiencies that could affect their perception or adversely affect their sensory performance, and thus can affect the reliability of their judgments. The vision of a judge is basically determined by three factors: visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and color vision. In the international practice of sensory analyses, color vision is generally examined. Color blindness is typically tested using the Ishihara pseudo-isochromatic color test, while color discrimination ability is examined using the FarnsworthMunsell 100 hue test . The most accurate tool to detect color blind people is the anomaloscope. Screening for color blind people is important because they have both poorer color discrimination abilities and poorer color identification abilities.
Application of the SPME technique for determinate the quality indicators of dairy products
Author: Rita Székelyhidi, Erika Hanczné Dr. Lakatos, Dr. Zsolt Ajtony
Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) is a relatively new extraction technique that combines taking samples from a mixture with a simpler desorption of the components to be analyzed of the unenriched sample in its original state in the analytical instrument. Based on a large number of publications in the literature, the authors describe the possibilities of using the SPME technique in the case of dairy products. The main groups of components that can be detected by the SPME sampling procedure, such as fatty acids, aldehydes and ketones, esters, alcohols, sulfur-containing organic compounds, furans, phenols and terpenoids are presented, through examples in the literature.
Review of national standardization
Author: Anna Szalay
Review of national standardization The following Hungarian standards are commercially available at MSZT (Hungarian Standards Institution, H-1082 Budapest, Horváth Mihály tér 1., phone: +36 1 456 6893, fax: +36 1 456 6841, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, postal address: H-1450 Budapest 9., Pf. 24) or via website: www.mszt.hu/webaruhaz.
Published national standards from September 2020 to November 2020
07.100.30 Food microbiology MSZ EN ISO 6887-5:2020 Microbiology of the food chain. Preparation of test samples, initial suspension and decimal dilutions for microbiological examination. Part 5: Specific rules for the preparation of milk and milk products (ISO 6887-5:2020) – which has withdrawn the MSZ EN ISO 6887-5:2010 – MSZ EN ISO 16654:2001/A1:2017 Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs. Horizontal method for the detection of Escherichia coli O157. Amendment 1: Annex B: Result of interlaboratory studies (ISO 16654:2001/Amd 1:2017)...